The Open Nursing Journal

ISSN: 1874-4346 ― Volume 14, 2020

Trends in Cervical Cancer Among Delivery-Related Discharges and its Impact on Maternal-Infant Birth Outcomes (United States, 1998-2009)

Mulubrhan F Mogos*, 1, Jason L Salemi 2, Dawood H Sultan 3, Melissa M Shelton 4, Hamisu M Salihu 2, 5
1 Department of Women Children and Family Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois, 845 S Damen Ave, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2 Maternal and Child Health Comparative Effectiveness Research Group, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC 56, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
3 College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Department of Health Policy and Management; 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA
4 College of Nursing, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC Box 22, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
5 Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA


Objectives :

To estimate the national prevalence of cervical cancer (CCA) in women discharged from hospital after delivery, and to examine its associations with birth outcomes.

Methods :

We did a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of maternal hospital discharges in the United States (1998-2009). We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database to identify hospital stays for women who gave birth. We determined length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, and used ICD-9-CM codes to identify CCA and all outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between CCA and feto-maternal outcome.

Results :

In the 12-year period from 1998 to 2009, there were 8,387 delivery hospitalizations with a CCA diagnosis, a prevalence rate of 1.8 per 100,000 (95% CI=1.6, 1.9). After adjusting for potential confounders, CCA was associated with increased odds of maternal morbidities including: anemia (AOR, 1.78, 95% CI, 1.54-2.06), anxiety (AOR, 1.95, 95% CI, 1.11-3.42), cesarean delivery (AOR, 1.67, 95% CI, 1.46-1.90), and prolonged hospital stay (AOR, 1.51, 95% CI, 1.30-1.76), and preterm birth (AOR, 1.69, 95% CI, 1.46-1.97).

Conclusion :

There is a recent increase in the prevalence of CCA during pregnancy. CCA is associated with severe feto-maternal morbidities. Interventions that promote safer sexual practice and regular screening for CCA should be promoted widely among women of reproductive age to effectively reduce the prevalence of CCA during pregnancy and its impact on the health of mother and baby.

Keywords: Birth outcomes, cervical cancer, delivery, fetus, maternal, trend.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2015
Volume: 9
First Page: 42
Last Page: 50
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-9-42
DOI: 10.2174/1874434601509010042

Article History:

Received Date: 20/3/2015
Revision Received Date: 2/6/2015
Acceptance Date: 15/6/2015
Electronic publication date: 16/11/2015
Collection year: 2015

© Mogos et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Women Children and Family Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois, 845 S Damen Ave, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; E-mail:


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