The Open Nutraceuticals Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1876-3960 ― Volume 8, 2015

Metabolic Syndrome: A Disease of the Brain


The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 2011, 4: 107-118

Daniel Pella, Kuniaki Otsuka, R.B. Singh

Medicine, 3rd Department of Medicine L. Pasteur University Hospital and Medical Faculty of PJ Safarik University,Trieda SNP 1, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia.

Electronic publication date 03/5/2011
[DOI: 10.2174/1876396001104010107]




Abstract:

Background:

There is evidence on the relation between brain dysfunction and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome leading to cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

Methods:

Medline search till Dec, 2009 and articles published in various national and international journals were reviewed. Experts working in the field were also consulted.

Results:

Increased intake of refined carbohydrates, linoleic acid, saturated and total fat and low dietary n-3 fatty acids and other long chain polyunsarurated fatty acids (PUFA) in conjunction with sedentary behaviour and mental stress and various personality traits can predispose inflammation and central obesity. There may be increased sympathetic activity with increased secretion of catecholamine, cortisol and serotonin and proinflammatory cytokines that appear to be underlying mechanisms of metabolic syndrome. Excess secretion of these neurotransmitters in conjunction of underlying long chain PUFA deficiency, may damage the neurons via proinflammatory cytokines, in the ventromedial hypothalamus and insulin receptors in the brain, especially during fetal life, infancy and childhood, resulting into their dysfunction. Since 30- 50% of the fatty acids in the brain are long chain PUFA, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are incorporated in the cell membrane phospholipids, it is possible that their supplementation may be protective. Omega-3 fatty acids are also known to enhance parasympathetic activity and increase the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, as well as acetylecholine in the hippocampus. It is possible that marginal deficiency of long chain PUFA, especially n-3 fatty acids, due to poor dietary intake during the critical period of brain growth and development in the fetus and infant, and also possibly in the child, adolescents and adults, may enhance the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, 2 and 6 and cause neuronal dysfunction. Experimental studies indicate that ventromedial hypothalamic lesion in rats induces hyperphagia, resulting into glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Treatment with neuropeptide Y abolished the hyperphagia and ob mRNA (leptin mRNA) in these rats. Long term infusion of norepinephrine and serotonin into the ventromedial hypothalamus, impaired pancreatic islet function in as much as, ventromedial hypothalamic norepinephrine and serotonin levels are elevated in hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant animals. Treatment with insulin was associated with restoration of these hypothalamic neurotransmitter abnormalities indicating that a dysfunction of ventromedial hypothalamus can impair pancreatic beta cells resulting into metabolic abnormalities consistent with metabolic syndrome. Treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, meditation, active prayer, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and oestrogen may have a beneficial influence on insulin receptors and ventromedial hypothalamic dysfunction. However, no definite and precise insight into the patho-physiological link between metabolic syndrome and brain and nutrition is available. Despite this weakness, epidemiological studies and intervention trials indicate that treatment with n-3 fatty acids may be applied to clinical practice and used to direct therapy for prevention of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and atherosclerosis.


Download PDF

Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2022 Bentham Open