The Open Nutrition Journal


ISSN: 1874-2882 ― Volume 15, 2021

Almonds and Walnuts Consumption Modifies PUFAs Profiles and Improves Metabolic Inflammation Beyond the Impact on Anthropometric Measure

Mónica I. Cardona-Alvarado1, Francisco J. Ortega2, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez3, María E. Tejero4, Jorge Molina-Torres3, José M. Fernández-Real2, Elva L. Perez-Luque1, *
1 Department of Medical Science, Division of Health Sciences, Campus Leon, University of Guanajuato, Leon, Mexico
2 Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition (UDEN), Institut d’Investigació Biomédica de Girona (IdIBGi), CIBER de la Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBERobn, CB06/03) and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Girona, Spain
3 Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. Cinvestav Unidad Irapuato. Guanajuato, México
4 Laboratory of Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics, National Institute of Genomic Medicine Mexico City, Mexico



To evaluate changes in serum fatty acids, metabolic profile and inflammation markers after a dietary intervention of 15g of walnuts and 15g of almonds for 8 weeks in obese subjects,

Patients and Methods:

We studied a total of 48 sedentary obese grade I subjects (13 men and 35 women). Anthropometric measures, body composition, serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, lipocalina-2, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and fatty acids profile were analyzed at the baseline and after dietary intervention.


The adiponectin (30.4%, p = 0.007), and lipocalin-2 concentrations (17.9%, p = 0.014), and total Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) percentage (1.6% p = 0.040) significantly increased after the intervention; particularly the eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid percentages were increased marginally. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids levels (3%, p = 0.001), in particular the C:14, C:16, in total cholesterol (6.7%, p = 0.01), LDL (11.4%, p = 0.002) levels, and in all adiposity measures (weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI and fat mass, p < 0.0001) was found. The effect size was large for all adiposity measures, except for BMI as well as for adiponectin which was moderate.


The intake of almonds and walnuts to short-time may improve significantly the metabolic profile and decrease adiposity.

Keywords: Obesity, Walnuts, Almonds, Adiponectin, Lipocalin-2, Metabolic profile.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 89
Last Page: 98
Publisher Id: TONUTRJ-12-89
DOI: 10.2174/1874288201812010089

Article History:

Received Date: 30/7/2018
Revision Received Date: 28/9/2018
Acceptance Date: 3/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 26/10/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Cardona-Alvarado et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Medical Science, Division of Health Sciences, Leon Campus, University of Guanajuato, Leon, Mexico. 20 de Enero 929, Colonia Obregón, C.P. 37320. Leon Guanajuato, México, Tel: 52 (477) 714 5859, E-mail:

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