1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Surgical Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokai University Oiso Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan
3 Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ebina General Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between patients with a valgus or varus deformity undergoing minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty through the medial approach.
The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the preoperative femorotibial angle measured on an anteroposterior long leg roentgenogram. The valgus group comprised of 26 knees in 21 patients with a femorotibial angle <170° (163.5 ± 5.7), and the varus group comprised of 24 knees in 21 patients with a femorotibial angle >190° (195.9 ± 5.5). The following background variables were compared between the groups: age at the time of the operation, sex, causative disease, preoperative femoral mechanical–anatomical angle, and postoperative knee range of motion, Knee Society score, femorotibial angle, and implant position.
There were significant differences between the valgus and varus groups in the age (68.0 ± 6.9 vs 75.8 ± 6.2 years), percentage of males (23.8% vs 0%), percentage with rheumatoid arthritis (61.9% vs 4.8%), and preoperative femoral mechanical–anatomical angle (6.2 ± 1.0° vs 7.4 ± 2.1°). Clinical outcome variables of postoperative femorotibial angle (173.1 ± 3.9° vs 175.2 ± 1.6°) and α angle (96.6 ± 3.1° vs 95.0 ± 1.9°) also differed.
It was assumed that over-valgus resection of the femur is a contributory factor to residual valgus alignment. However, knee range of motion and Knee Society score did not differ between the groups. We suggest that minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty through the medial approach is one of the treatment options for patients with valgus deformity.
Keywords: Femoral Mechanical‒Anatomical Angle, Medial Approach, Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty, Pie Crust Technique, Posterior-Stabilized Implant, Valgus Deformity.
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