The Open Pain Journal

ISSN: 1876-3863 ― Volume 13, 2020

Minocycline Inhibits the Enhanced Antidromic Stimulation-induced Sensitization of C-Fibers Following Intradermal Capsaicin Injection

Kerui Gong1, 2, Qing Lin1, *
1 Department of Psychology, College of Science, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA



Our previous studies indicated that retrograde signaling initiating from the spinal cord was mediated by the plasticity of Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons. Both retrograde signaling and neuronal plasticity contributed to neurogenic inflammation, which were modulated by the activity of Satellite Glial Cells (SGCs). Thus, we want to know whether retrograde signaling is involved in the hypersensitivity of nociceptive afferents, and whether this process is affected by the plasticity of DRG neurons and glia.


The study aims to examine if retrograde signaling can induce hypersensitivity of primary afferent nociceptors and if hypersensitivity involves glial modulation.


Antidromic Electrical Stimulation (ES) of dorsal roots was used to mimic retrograde signaling activity. C- primary nociceptive afferent activity was recorded for testing the effect of antidromic ES. In a separate group, intradermal capsaicin injection to the ipsilateral hindpaw was used to prime DRG nociceptive neurons. For the third group, a glial inhibitor, minocycline, was pre-administered to test glial modulation in this process.


Antidromic ES sensitized the responses of C-fibers to nociceptive mechanical stimuli. For rats subjected to intradermal capsaicin injection, C fibers experienced more drastic sensitization induced by antidromic ES, shown as a greater response and longer duration, implying that sensitization correlates with the activation of DRG neurons.

Minocycline pretreatment significantly blocked the priming effect of capsaicin on C-fiber sensitization induced by antidromic ES, indicating the involvement of SGCs in DRG neuronal sensitization.


Retrograde signaling may be one of the important mechanisms in neurogenic inflammation-mediated nociception, and this process is subjected to satellite glial modulation.

Keywords: Neurogenic inflammation, Antidromic electrical stimulation, Single fiber recording, C fiber, Capsaicin, Minocycline, Satellite glial cell.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 11
Last Page: 18
Publisher Id: TOPAINJ-12-11
DOI: 10.2174/1876386301912010011

Article History:

Received Date: 12/03/2019
Revision Received Date: 28/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 11/06/2019
Electronic publication date: 30/06/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Gong and Lin.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Psychology, 501 South, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0528, USA;
Tel: +1-817-272-0154; Fax: +1-817-272-2364; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open