The Open Public Health Journal

ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 12, 2019

Awareness of Health Care Practitioners About the National Health Insurance in Tshwane District, South Africa

L.H. Mabuza*, G.A. Ogunbanjo, K.E. Hlabyago, M. Mogotsi
Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa



In 2012, the National Department of Health of South Africa launched the National Health Insurance (NHI) pilot program in 11 districts, towards universal health coverage for all South Africans. Health Care Practitioners (HCPs) are important role-players in its implementation. We decided to evaluate to what extent the HCPs were aware of the NHI program after three years of the pilot phase.


To evaluate the awareness of HCPs about the NHI in the pilot Tshwane district of South Africa.


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1753 HCPs in Tshwane district. At 95% confidence level and 5% error margin, the sample size was 315 HCPs, but we over-sampled to 480. The study was conducted in 25 health facilities within the district. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used.


A high proportion of HCPs were unaware of the objectives of the NHI program (p < 0.001); number of NHI pilot sites [(281; 59.4%) versus (145; 30.7%), p < 0.001]; rationale used to select pilot sites [(223; 46.9%) versus (193; 40.5%), p = 0.047]; role of the Integrated School Health Services (ISHP) [(250; 52.7%) versus (70; 14.8%), p < 0.001]; and specialists constituting the District Clinical Specialist Team (DCST) (p < 0.001). However, awareness regarding the Ward-Based Outreach Team (WBOT) leader was high [(236; 49.9%) versus (135; 28.5%), p < 0.001].


HCPs in Tshwane district demonstrated poor awareness of the NHI. This reveals that any awareness effort towards the NHI has not taken effect among the HCPs in this district.

Keywords: Awareness, National health insurance, Health care professionals, Pilot, Tshwane district, Universal health coverage.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 11
First Page: 93
Last Page: 103
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-11-93
DOI: 10.2174/1874944501811010093

Article History:

Received Date: 10/11/2017
Revision Received Date: 12/03/2018
Acceptance Date: 19/03/2018
Electronic publication date: 30/03/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1127
Abstract HTML Views: 1128
PDF Downloads: 820
ePub Downloads: 792
Total Views/Downloads: 3867

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 663
Abstract HTML Views: 533
PDF Downloads: 302
ePub Downloads: 225
Total Views/Downloads: 1723
Geographical View

© 2018 Mabuza et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence this author at the 1Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa, Tel: +012-5213607; Fax: 0125214172; E-mail:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open