The Open Public Health Journal

ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 12, 2019

Distal Forearm Bone Mineral Density Among Hill Tribes in the Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

Sompong Sriburee, Montree Tungjai, Suratchanee Padngam, Tarika Thumvijit, Pongsiri Hongsriti, Monruedee Tapanya, Utumma Maghanemi, Kwanchai Ratanasthien, Suchart Kothan*
Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand



Osteoporosis is a major public health issue in several countries worldwide because it increases healthcare costs, and is a risk for mortality. There have been several studies that have examined BMD among the various Thai people and the regions that they inhabit.


This study examined the distal forearm Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in men and women over 40 years of age among members of various Karen hill-tribes located in the Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.


Two hundred and sixty-two subjects (180 women, 82 men), ranging from 40 to 83 years old were recruited in this study. The non-dominant distal forearm bone mineral density was assessed by using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (pDEXA).


The results showed that the BMD were 0.530 ± 0.065, 0.508 ± 0.087, 0.461 ± 0.098, and 0.438 ± 0.124 g/cm2 for men age 40-49 years, age 50-59 years, age 60-69 years, and ages 70-83 years, respectively. For women, the BMD were 0.392 ± 0.051, 0.337 ± 0.063, 0.232 ± 0.065, and 0.212 ± 0.069 g/cm2 among women age 40-49 years, age 50-59 years, age 60-69 years, and ages 70-83 years, respectively. BMD had decreased in post-menopause as a function of duration time after menopause.


We determined the prevalence of osteoporosis of men and women of Karen hill-tribes in the Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. These findings provided important information regarding bone health in Karen hill-tribes for any healthcare planning done in the immediate future.

Keywords: Forearm, X-ray absorptiometry, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Bone mineral density, Karen hill tribes.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 1
Last Page: 6
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-12-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874944501912010001

Article History:

Received Date: 9/9/2018
Revision Received Date: 24/12/2018
Acceptance Date: 10/1/2019
Electronic publication date: 29/1/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Sriburee et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, 110 Intawaroros Rd., Sripoom, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand; Tel: +6653-949-213, Fax: +6653-93-6042; E-mail: suchart.kothan


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