The Open Public Health Journal




ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 12, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus With Glycated Haemoglobin in Newly Diagnosed HIV-positive Patients in Buffalo City Municipality, South Africa: A Cross-sectional Study



Olufunso O. Sogbanmu1, 2, *, Larry O. Obi2, Daniel T. Goon3, Anthony Okoh1, 2, Benson Iweriebor1, 2, Uchechukwu. U. Nwodo1, 2, Anthony I. Ajayi4, Tennison O. Digban1, 2
1 SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
2 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
3 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
4 Department of Social Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa

Abstract

Background:

The HbA1c estimates long-term glycaemic control in individuals. However, scanty data exist on the determination of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in newly diagnosed HIV patients using the HbA1c screening tool in the South African context. Thus, this study examines the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients in Buffalo City Municipality, East London, South Africa.

Methodology:

This was a cross-sectional study of 335 newly HIV-diagnosed patients between August 2016 and July 2017. Demographic (age, gender, residence, employment status and level of education) and behavioural variables (smoking and alcohol use (past 30 days)) were by self-reporting. Information on HbA1c and other clinical variables were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Diabetes mellitus was defined based on the Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa (SEMDSA) 2017 guideline of HbA1c of above 6.5%. Weight and height were measured using standard protocols. Logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of abnormal glycated haemoglobin.

Results:

Majority of the participants were female (72%). The prevalence of patients with HbA1c greater than 6.5% was 6%. The multivariate analysis indicates only age (p=0.031) and race (0.019) significantly shows a correlation to increase the risk of development of DM in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients. The binary logistic regression analysis shows that age (above 46 years) (p=0.001; AOR (6.60); CI (2.08-20.9) was directly related to the development of DM.

Conclusion:

Consistent with other studies, the exclusive non-fasting HbA1c, which is a marker of glycaemic control, only underestimate glycemia in HIV patients with diabetes in this present study. Notwithstanding, HIV patients who are over 40 years are likely to develop DM. As such, screening older individuals diagnosed with HIV is crucial in offering a timely point of care and interventions.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients, HbA1c, South Africa, Glycated haemoglobin, SEMDSA.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 263
Last Page: 268
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-12-263
DOI: 10.2174/1874944501912010263

Article History:

Received Date: 21/02/2019
Revision Received Date: 12/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 16/05/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 748
Abstract HTML Views: 784
PDF Downloads: 241
ePub Downloads: 181
Total Views/Downloads: 1954

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 462
Abstract HTML Views: 398
PDF Downloads: 160
ePub Downloads: 114
Total Views/Downloads: 1134
Geographical View

© 2019 Sogbanmu et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Tel: +27730376528; E-mail: dudumela@yahoo.com



Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open