The Open Public Health Journal

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Effectiveness of Deep Breathing and Body Scan Meditation Combined with Music to Improve Sleep Quality and Quality of Life in Older Adults

Nitayapa Nanthakwang1, Penprapa Siviroj1, *, Anuchart Matanasarawoot2, Ratana Sapbamrer1, Peerasak Lerttrakarnnon2, Ratanaporn Awiphan3
1 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand



In older adults, physiological changes affect sleep and may cause impaired daily function and Reduced Quality of Life (QOL). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of deep breathing exercises and body scan meditation combined with music to improve sleep quality and QOL.


A randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment method was conducted. Fifty-nine older adults with poor sleep quality were recruited using block randomization to intervention and control groups. The intervention group was instructed to do deep breathing and body scan meditation while listening to music through Bluetooth speakers once a day for thirty minutes before sleeping, a daily practice to last for eight weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) were administered to both groups prior to the intervention and 8-week post-baseline of the intervention.


The global PSQI in the intervention group significantly decreased following the intervention, whereas the control group showed no difference. There was a decrease in individual PSQI components as well for the intervention group, namely, sleep efficiency, perceived sleep quality, and daily disturbance. The intervention group did not differ from the control group in sleep efficiency or perceived sleep quality, but there was a significant difference in the daily disturbance. Additionally, the total PTQL in the intervention group significantly increased between the two time periods, whereas there was no difference in the controls. The intervention group scored higher in each domain of PTQL, except for the economic domain.


A daily practice of deep breathing and body scan meditation combined with music has a positive effect on improving sleep quality and QOL among older adults. Hence, this intervention should be implemented to improve sleep quality and promote QOL in older adults.

Keywords: Sleep quality, Quality of life, Deep breathing, Body scan meditation, Older adults, Bluetooth speaker.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 232
Last Page: 239
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-13-232
DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010232

Article History:

Received Date: 04/02/2020
Revision Received Date: 21/03/2020
Acceptance Date: 29/03/2020
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Nanthakwang et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to the author at the Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; Tel: +66 53 935472, Fax: +66 53 935 476; E-mail:

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