The Open Conference Proceedings Journal


(Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Medicine, Engineering & Technology)



ISSN: 2210-2892 ― Volume 10, 2019

Ethnobotany of High Altitude Medicinal / Aromatic Plants in the Fertile Crescent


The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013, 4: 21

Munir Ozturk, Volkan Altay

H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Electronic publication date 1/3/2013
[DOI: 10.2174/2210289201304010021]

CrossRef Citations:
0


Article Metrics:

Geographical View
Total Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 387
PDF Downloads: 208
Total Views/Downloads: 595

Unique Statistics:

Abstract HTML Views: 262
PDF Downloads: 146
Total Views/Downloads: 408


Abstract:

Fertile crescent represents a unique arena for ethnobotanical studies. Advent of humans in this area took place in the early pleistocene and population explosion occurred 4000 years earlier here than in the West Mediterranean. Agriculture in this area of megadiversity dates back to Natufian culture, about 8000 B.C.. It includes 2 of the eight centers of origin of cultivated plants and many biregional and pluriregional species. Total gene pool of wild and cultivated plants has a great potential in its flora. Area shows a great variability in the flora and vegetation, inspite of the fact that large stretches of these lands are bare deserts. The reason for rich plant diversity is the location of this area between the Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian, Saharo-Sindian and Sudano-Decanian regions. One of the striking features is the replacement of various floras suddenly. The relationship between humans and plants has existed here since Paleolithic age. The cultures here have had a great impact on the development of medicine. This is supported by the grave of a Neanderthal man in the southern part of Hakkari-Turkey. Many plant remedies have been given on the clay tablets from the civilizations in the fertile crescent. Modern ethnobotany was born here with the work of Dioscorides from Anarzabos in South Anatolia-Turkey. Out of 600 plants documented by him in “Materia Medica”, majority have originated from this area and most of these plants are still in use. The traditional Unani medicine is still being practiced widely here, with important components of the ancient Mesopotamian usages. The herb dealers are still popular. The area abounds in mountains. A rich perennial herbaceous and semi-woody dwarf plants are distributed at high altitudes of these mountains, which are covered by snow until the mid-spring when herbaceous plants start emerging. Several species of Acantholimon, Ajuga, Allium, Alyssum, Astragalus, Berberis, Cerasus, Chamaecytisus, Cirsium, Colchicum, Campanula, Convolvulus, Cotoneaster, Crocus, Dianthus, Draba,Ebenus, Euphorbia, Fritillaria, Hypercium,Orchis, Ornithogalum, Marrubium,Morina,Ononis,Phlomis,Pilosella, Potentilla Rosa, Sedum,Tanacetum,Thymus and several other plant taxa occupy these altitudes in the alpine and subalpine vegetation. Factors threatening plant diversity globally apply for this area too. Wealth of information is slowly disappearing due to popollution, urbanization, industrialisation, dam constructions, means of communication etc. Polen diagrams from the area reveal early and widespread forest clearance, grazing and cultivation, even at high altitudes. The fire effects are 10.000 years old. Aridification of the climate has started here sometime between 1000 and 500 B.C. Recent information on the climatic variations shows that CO2 concentration in our atmosphere has touched the level of 390 ppm in 2010, and these developments are accepted as one of the greatest challenge for different plant taxa. It is causing noticeable effects on the growth and development as well as active ingredients of plants. Aromatic and medicinal plants are equally effected from these changes in particular high altitude plants. Such a change will lead to an increase in the biotic and abiotic stresses thus affecting the production of different compounds which in turn will effect their medicinal activity. There is an urgent need for important future research projects focussing on plant uses within communities living at higher altitudes, medical herbalism in different ethnic groups, local and neglected aromatic plants.


Download PDF

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open