The Open Conference Proceedings Journal

(Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Physical Sciences, Medicine, Engineering & Technology)


ISSN: 2210-2892 ― Volume 10, 2020

Development of A Generic UPLC/MS Workflow for the Authentication of Hoodia Gardonii Based on Comprehensive Chemical Fingerprinting

The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 2013, 4: 4

Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Kate Yu, Dominic Moore, Warren Potts, Ikhlas A Khan


Electronic publication date 1/3/2013
[DOI: 10.2174/2210289201304010004]



In recent years, Hoodia plant and the preparations of Hoodia have become increasingly popular. These dietary supplements are promoted for weight loss. The limited availability of this plant material and its increasing popularity leads to the possibility of adulterations by other species or even genera. Previous results of screenings give rise to serious concerns about the safety of commercial products claimed to be Hoodia, as a considerable amount seems to lack Hoodia. There is a strong need to develop an effective analytical protocol that can be routinely used to authenticate either plant extracts or commercial products that claimed to contain Hoodia gordonii.


Fourteen samples were used for this analysis. Of these fourteen samples, one known to be authentic Hoodia gordonii from South Africa, three Hoodia species from Missouri Botanical Garden, USA, three Hoodia gordonii samples from commercial source, five were commercially obtained dietary supplements claimed to contain Hoodia gordonii, and two were Opuntia species (spp.), an adulterant which grows quickly with no appetite suppressing activity associated. Samples were analyzed by an ACQUITY UPLC/Synapt G2 MS system with an UPLC HSS T3 column (100mm!2.1mm). The flow rate was rate was 0.6 mL/min with water with 0.05% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase. ESI+ and ESI- experiments were performed with data acquired over a range of m/z 100 to 1700.

Preliminary Data:

The first step of this workflow was to analyze these samples using a typical plant metabolomics analysis protocol, i.e.: UPLC/oaTOF MS with data indepent acquisition (no less than 3 injections per sample) for the entire sample set. Multi-Variate Statistical Analysis data processing strategy was used so that as initial results, a group of chemical markers can be generated, these markers are characteristics of Hoodia gardonii and were identified based on comprehensive chemical fingerprinting. If samples were analyzed in both positive and negative ionization modes, then two lists of chemical markers can be obtained, one from positive ESI and other from negative ESI. Some markers will be on both lists which help the confirmations; some markers will be on only one mode as compounds ionization behaviors differ. Our preliminary results were obtained based on PCA analysis for the entire sample set, followed by OPLS-DA analysis of authentic Hoodia gordonii vs different samples. There are a group of markers consistently appeared to be the key markers for Hoodia gordonii regardless what was the other group the Hoodia gordonii was compared against. In our results, in ESI-, we identified 11 markers as Hoodia gordonii markers, and in ESI+, we identified 30 markers as Hoodia gardonii markers. The second step of this workflow was to create a Hoodia gordonii LC/MS authentication method using the identified marker information. This method contains the name of the marker compound along with its expected LC retention time, exact molecular mass information, and MS-MS fragment information (optional). In this project, two methods were created, one based on ESI+ results, and one based on ESI- results. Each method can be used to test unknown samples based on which ionization mode was used during testing. For unknown sample that claims to contain Hoodia gordonii as an ingredient, one UPLC/MS injection was made, an application manager from the mass spec vendor allows east application of the Hoodia authentication method, as a result, a report was automatically generated to indicate how many of the essential markers were present in the unknown sample at what concentration level so that the authentication of the unknown sample can be easily accomplished.

Novel aspect:

A generic workflow based on comprehensive chemical fingerprinting using UPLC/TOF MSE with novel informatics solution for plant authentication (Hoodia gordonii)

Download PDF

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2023 Bentham Open