The Open Psychology Journal

ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 12, 2019

Grade and Gender Effects on Self-Concept Development

Marwa Alrajhi1, *, Said Aldhafri1, 2, Hussain Alkharusi1, Ibrahim Alharthy1, Hafidah Albarashdi2, Amal Alhadabi3
1 Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Muscat, The Sultanate of Oman
2 The Research Council. College of Education, SQU, Oman
3 Ministry of Education, 6600 Alpha Drive 240 Kent Ohio 44240, USA



Different biological and environmental factors may play roles in the development of self-concept. Many studies have focused on gender or age differences in self-concept separately.


The current study aimed at examining the effects of grade, gender and their interaction on the development of four self-concept dimensions (appearance, school, parent-relations, and peer-relations) among Omani adolescents.


The study sample was 651 middle and high school students from two districts in Oman. The students were enrolled in grades 7, 9 and 11. The study utilized the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ-1, Marsh, 1988) to assess students' levels in the self-concepts dimensions. The study adopted the descriptive design using Two Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance.


The study results demonstrated that grade and gender interaction affected appearance self-concept development; however, this interaction had no effects on the other dimensions. Moreover, gender and grade differences were found in some dimensions of self-concept.


The study suggested that the effects of grade level and gender varied based on the self-concept dimensions. Adolescents' self-concept should be given a careful attention for its important role in providing healthy outcomes.

Keywords: Students, Oman, Self-concept, Grade, Gender, Development.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 66
Last Page: 75
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-12-66
DOI: 10.2174/1874350101912010066

Article History:

Received Date: 19/11/2018
Revision Received Date: 23/01/2019
Acceptance Date: 12/02/2019
Electronic publication date: 19/03/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Alrajhi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Sultan Qaboos University, P.O Box: 35, PC. 123 Al-Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; Tel: + 96898572266; Fax: (+968) 24413522; E-mail:


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