The Open Psychology Journal

ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 11, 2018

Pilot Study of the Effects of Cognitive Remediation Therapy Using the Frontal/Executive Program for Treating Chronic Schizophrenia

Hidetoshi Omiya1, 2, Kiyoko Yamashita2, Tomoki Miyata2, Yukie Hatakeyama2, Maki Miyajima1, 2, Kenji Yambe2, Izuru Matsumoto3, Mie Matsui4, Atsuhito Toyomaki5, Kenzo Denda*, 1
1 Department of Functioning and Disability, Faculty of Health Science, Hokkaido University Kita 12, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812, Japan
2 Department of Psychiatry, Asahiyama Hospital 4-3-33, Futagoyama, Chuou-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 064-0946, Japan
3 Department of Psychiatry, Matsumoto Mental Clinic 7-1, Kita 7, Nishi5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0807, Japan
4 Department of Psychology, Toyama University 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
5 Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638, Japan



Cognitive Remediation Therapy is a new rehabilitation approach that has been created in order to improve cognitive functions such as attention, memory and executive function. We aimed to investigate the effects of one type of Cognitive Remediation Therapy, the Frontal/Executive Program, on cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in the chronic phase schizophrenia patients.


Seventeen participants who gave consent were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=8) or control group (n=9). The intervention consisted of 44 sessions of FEP over a period of approximately six months. Cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated before and after the intervention and before and after a roughly six-month long period for controls. Results: The present study showed improvements in Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version composite score and subscales of verbal memory and working memory. Improvements were also observed in overall evaluation in the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale-Japanese version, total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale score. FEP is considered to improve the performance of cognitive function tests and social function tests and psychiatric symptoms tests that are the target of this training.


Intervention by Frontal/Executive Program improved cognitive function and psychiatric symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia with long disease duration who require large doses of medication. Significant effects of intervention were observed in overall patient, informant and interviewer evaluation in social function test. FEP is a training method the primary means pencil and paper, it is possible to inexpensively implement when compared to the other CRT that uses a computer. There is an advantage that less economic cost.

Keywords: Cognitive function, Cognitive Remediation Therapy, Frontal/Executive Program, Psychiatric symptoms, Schizophrenia, Social function.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2016
Volume: 09
First Page: 121
Last Page: 128
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-9-121
DOI: 10.2174/1874350101609010121

Article History:

Received Date: 24/08/2016
Revision Received Date: 14/10/2016
Acceptance Date: 17/10/2016
Electronic publication date: 31/10/2016
Collection year: 2016

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© Omiya et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Functioning and Disability, Faculty of Health Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 12, Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812, Japan; Tel: +81-11-706-3387; Fax: +81-11-706-3387; E-mail:


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