This paper provides an update and overview of the field of memory disorders and memory rehabilitation of adults. Progresses in brain plasticity knowledge and neuroimaging observations about compensation after structural losses have influenced non-pharmacological interventions, which represent a growing area with strong theories and explanatory frameworks. Rehabilitation models may follow three directives not alternatives to each other: restore lost functions, develop compensatory strategies or adopt external memory aids. Because of treatment approaches have a differential effect on distinct aspects of memory functions, and the
assessment of the treatment outcomes is relevant not only at impairment level but also at the disability level, the effectiveness of restitution oriented therapies and compensatory approaches
was evaluated. We discussed these different treatment approaches also reporting a survey of training results and systematic reviews findings. A large body of evidence seems to support, with different efficacy levels according to etiology and type of brain injury, several training programs in stable individuals but not in persons with degenerative disease. The present paper can serve as a guide for clinicians and researchers.