Arthritis Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord St, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Recent advances in defining TGF-β signaling pathways have provided a new level of understanding of the role of this pleiotropic growth factor in the development of fibrosis. Here, we review selected topics related to the profibrotic role of TGF-β . We will discuss new insights into the mechanisms of ligand activation and the contribution of Erk1/2 MAPK, PI3K/FAK, and Endoglin/Smad1 signaling pathways to the process of fibrosis. There is growing evidence of the disease-specific alterations of the downstream components of the TGF-β signaling pathway that may be explored for the future therapeutic interventions.
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