The Open Respiratory Medicine Journal




ISSN: 1874-3064 ― Volume 13, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence and Predictors of Ocular Complications in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: A Cross-sectional Case-control Study



Nesreen E. Morsy1, 9, Badawi E Amani2, Ahmad A Magda1, Awadalla J Nabil3, Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal4, Ahmed S. BaHammam5, David Warren Spence6, Per O. Lundmark7, Nevin FW Zaki8, 9, *
1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
3 Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
4 Somnogen Canada Inc., College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
5 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, The University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Independent Research Consultant, Toronto, Canada
7 Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Campus Kongsberg (5346), Norway
8 Somnlogist, Sleep Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
9 Mansoura University Sleep Center, Mansoura, Egypt

Abstract

Purpose:

This study sought to identify the magnitude and the possible risk factors of ocular complications in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

Methods:

A hospital-based cross-sectional study with a nested case-control design was conducted. Qualifying study subjects were patients who had been diagnosed with moderate to severe OSA (AHI index of ≥ 5, n=80), and control subjects (n=20) who had an AHI index of ≤ 5 (“normal”). Study participants were recruited from Mansoura University Hospital’s Sleep Disorders Clinic in Mansoura, Egypt.Selected subjects were assessed for ocular complications at Mansoura Univerity Hospital Ophthalmic Center, (Mansoura), Egypt. An ophthalmic history was recorded, and opthalmic testing was carried out. The testing included unaided visual acuity measurement, refraction, best-corrected visual acuity measurement, slit lamp bio-microscopic evaluation of the anterior segment and anterior segment photography, dilated fundus examination, intraocular pressure measurement, fundus photo, and fluorescein angiography, and visual field assessment. Various tests of OSA symptoms were also monitored, including the AHI, lowest oxygen concentrations and desaturation index plus the overall severity index. .

Results:

It was found that OSA patients n=28 (35%), n=24 (30%), n=4 (5%) had senile cataract, normal tension glaucoma, and retinal ischemia, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 45%. Additionally, the OSA group had seven times greater risk (OR=7.36, 95%CI: 1.6-33.86) of vision-threatening disorders compared to the controls. OSA patients were observed to be at a greater risk of senile cataract 28 (35%), normal tension glaucoma 24 (30%), retinal ischemia 4 (5%) and conjunctival hyperemia and dry eye (OR=3.77, 95%CI: 1.02-13.95, OR=4.36, 95%CI: 1.26-17.08). Also, multivariate logistic regression analysis testing showed that the lowest oxygen saturation index was the only significant predictor negatively associated with vision-threatening disorders (OR=0.84, 95%CI: 0.75-0.93).

Conclusion:

The risk of vision-threatening and non-threatening ocular disorders is higher among OSA cases. The lowest oxygen saturation index was the only significant predictor of vision-threatening disorders. These findings support the recommendation that a full ophthalmic examination should be carried out on patients with confirmed OSA.

Keywords: Eye, Desaturation, Glucoma, Intraocular pressure, Vision disorders, Hypoxia.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 19
Last Page: 30
Publisher Id: TORMJ-13-19
DOI: 10.2174/1874306401913010019

Article History:

Received Date: 16/02/2019
Revision Received Date: 27/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 23/06/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 213
Abstract HTML Views: 114
PDF Downloads: 43
ePub Downloads: 37
Total Views/Downloads: 407

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 89
Abstract HTML Views: 65
PDF Downloads: 34
ePub Downloads: 27
Total Views/Downloads: 215
Geographical View

© 2019 Morsy et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. box: 35516 Mansoura University Mansoura-Dakahlia, Egypt; Tel: +201283339789; Fax: +2 050 2267016; Emails: mernakero@mans.edu.eg, nevinfzaki@yahoo.com


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open