The Open Sports Sciences Journal

ISSN: 1875-399X ― Volume 13, 2020

Exhaustive Classification and Review of Techniques and Research Program for Techniques for Skate Skiing, Classical Skiing, and Ski Mountaineering

Kjell Hausken*
Faculty of Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway



Scattered analysis of some cross country skiing techniques is present in the literature.


To provide an exhaustive classification and systematic overview of techniques in cross country skiing.


This paper classifies six techniques for skate skiing (gliding diagonal skate skiing G1, paddling G2, double dance G3, two skate G4, marathon skate, combiskate G5), four techniques for classical skiing (running diagonal stride RUN DS, diagonal stride DS, double poling kick DK, and double poling DP), five techniques for both skate skiing and classical skiing (herringbone HB, side-stepping G6, low tuck G7, plowing, skidding), and five techniques for steep terrain ski mountaineering. Classification occurs according to degrees of inclination of the terrain, speed ranges, whether the technique is propulsive or for downhill velocity control/turning, frequency of time applied, and literature references. Furthermore, techniques depend on snow conditions, friction, competition, training, wind, positioning within a race, the skier’s expertise, exhaustion level, acceleration, deceleration, etc.


Techniques can influence who wins races in cross-country skiing. Reasons for technique changes are provided, exemplified with technique changes through terrains with different inclines. Literature references are given for inclines and speeds for the various techniques.


Essential for maturing skiers are the frequency and quality by which the six techniques for skate skiing, four techniques for classical skiing, and five techniques for both styles except mountaineering, are trained, when to use them, how and in which sequence they are introduced, and adequate supplementary training (e.g. crunches for double poling DP). A research program is sketched.

Keywords: Skiing, Techniques, Gears, Skate skiing, Classical, Ski mountaineering, Classification.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 10
First Page: 160
Last Page: 178
Publisher Id: TOSSJ-10-160
DOI: 10.2174/1875399X01710010160

Article History:

Received Date: 22/05/2017
Revision Received Date: 04/08/2017
Acceptance Date: 02/09/2017
Electronic publication date: 31/10/2017
Collection year: 2017

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© 2017 Kjell Hausken.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Sciences,University of Stavanger,4036 Stavanger, Norway; Tel: +47 51 831632; Fax: +47 51 831550; E-mail:


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