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Structuring of surfaces of metal parts is performed with the electric current commutated by the pulsed plasma. Alloying elements are added to plasma and participate in a micro metallurgical process occurring on the molten surface of a part. Heat capacity of metal of the part provides the high rates of cooling and solidification of the melt. Cycling of the melting and solidification process under conditions of pulsed physical fields provides stirring and crystallisation of alloy to form microcrystalline structures. The technology is implemented using ingenious accelerators of alloying elements, which are based on development of the non-stationary processes of detonation of combustible gas mixtures in the electric field. The surface is treated with the pulsed, electric, magnetic, acoustic and elastic-deformation fields, thus enhancing the “abnormal” heat and mass transfer processes and providing formation of new materials and alloys with microcrystalline structures in surface layer.