The Open Urology & Nephrology Journal

ISSN: 1874-303X ― Volume 13, 2020

Does the Trace Element Deficiency (Vit A, D & Zinc) Have Any Role in Vulnerability to Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Case-Control Study: Tehran, Iran

Samileh Noorbakhsh1, *, Shima J. Nia2, Zahra Movahedi3, Sarvenaz Ashouri4
1 Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Pulmonary Disease, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Hazrat Masoumeh Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Qom, Iran
4 ENT and Head and Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background and Objective:

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common causes of hospital admission in our young population. This prospective cohort study was carried out to assess the relation of serum levels of zinc, vitamins A and D with UTI in children with proven UTI.


The serum levels of Zinc, vitamins A and D were compared between 25 proven UTI cases (admitted in 2 educational hospitals in Tehran) and 40 controls without infection (children who had undergone for elective surgery). The average age of children was 2.17 years. Atomic absorption Spectrophotometry, Radioimmunoassay, and HPLC methods were used for measuring the Zinc, Vit D and A, respectively.


Although the serum levels of zinc were significantly lower in UTI cases (P=0.05), no significant differences had observed between cases and controls for vitamins A and D in sera (P=0.4 and P=0.9).


Due to established lower zinc level in UTI cases (p-value = 0.05), zinc deficiency might have a role in susceptibility to UTI in studied children. Administration of zinc could be helpful in preventing UTI. To establish the role of Vitamins A and D in vulnerability to UTI, further extensive research with larger samples is needed.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection , Pyelonephritis , Children , Vitamin A , Vitamin D , Zinc .

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 23
Last Page: 26
Publisher Id: TOUNJ-12-23
DOI: 10.2174/1874303X01912010023

Article History:

Received Date: 16/01/2019
Revision Received Date: 24/05/2019
Acceptance Date: 30/05/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Noorbakhsh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Departement of pediatric infectious diseases, 4th floor, Hazrat Rasul Hospital, Niayesh Street, Satarkhan Avenue, Tehran, 14455 Islamic Republic of Iran; Tel: +98-21-66525328;
Fax: +98-21-66525328; Email:

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