Kwanchai Pirojsakul, Nisha Mathews, Mouin G. Seikaly*
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Children’s Medical Center of Dallas, USA
The incidence of end stage of renal disease (ESRD) in US children age 0-19 years is 12.9 per million/year
(2012). The economic and social burden of diagnosing, treating and preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children
and adults remains substantial. Advances in identifying factors that predict development of CKD and its progression, as
well as advances in the management of co-morbid conditions including anemia, cardiovascular disease, growth, mineral
and bone disorder, and neurocognitive function are discussed. Despite recent reports from retrospective registry data
analysis and multi-center prospective studies which have significantly advanced our knowledge of CKD, and despite
advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of CKD much work remains to be done to
improve the long term outcome of this disease.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pediatrics,
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, TX