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Different scale approaches, micromechanical, multiscale and macromechanical or phenomenological, are
presented to study the structural response of masonry elements. First, a micromechanical model is introduced and the
masonry is considered to be a heterogeneous material, made of mortar and bricks joined by interfaces, where the mortarbrick
decohesion mechanisms occur. To this end, a special interface model combining damage and friction is proposed.
Then, two multiscale procedures are presented, that consider regular arrangements of bricks and mortar, modeled by
nonlinear constitutive laws which account for damage and friction effects. A homogenization technique is developed to
derive two different equivalent continuum models at the macro-level, a micropolar Cosserat continuum and a nonlocal
Finally, a macromechanical model, based on the adoption of a classical No-Tension Material (NTM) model, and on the
presence of irreversible crushing strains, is proposed. A zero tensile strength is assumed, thus fracture strains arise when
the stress is zero. Moreover, an elastoplastic model is considered for the material response in compression. Numerical
applications are performed on a masonry arch and two masonry panels, by adopting the three approaches presented.
Comparisons with experimental outcomes, published elsewhere, are performed.