COVID 19 Pandemic; A Review on Understanding Mode of Transmission and Application of Strategies to Delay/Stop Transmission with Special Reference to India
Sameer Singhal1, *, Prachi Singhal2, Amit Mittal3, B K Agarwal4, MahalaquaNazli Khatib5, Abhay Gaidhane6
1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
2 Department of Dentistry, Government Medical College, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Dept of Radiodiagnosis, Vice Principal, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana,Ambala,Haryana, India
4 Dept of Medicine, Principal, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India
5 Department of PhysiologyandHead, Division of Evidence Synthesis, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
6 Department of PSM and Director, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, JNMC, DMIMS, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
SARS CoV-2 has affected globally more than 31 hundred thousand population with more than 2 hundred thousand deaths till date, since its inception from Wuhan, China in December 2019. World is still clueless regarding definitive treatment for this highly contagious disease. Till then we have to rely on time tested methods to delay/stop transmission of this viral disease by doing social isolation, wearing face mask and hand hygiene.
The main objective of this review paper is to focus on different modes of transmission of this virus, comparison of this virus with previous similar analogy viral diseases like SARS and MERS and different strategies that can be planned or ongoing to reduce/delay transmission of this virus in community contacts, especially in context to India.
PUBMED, Google Scholar and BioRxiv search was performed with keywords; COVID- 19, mode of transmission, infection, India, BCG. Around 538 eligible papers were evaluated from time period of January 1 to 29 April 2020 and results were summarized
On analysis of different papers on mode of transmission it was found that this virus is highly contagious and spreads through air droplet, close contact, through fomites and different metallic surfaces and through aerosol in surroundings with high aerosol generating procedures only. Also, it can spread both in asymptomatic and symptomatic phase equally so early testing is essential. Also it is mutating in different host environments so it is imperative to include different strains in vaccine preparation.
Results demonstrate the fact that early screening, social distancing, isolation of symptomatic patients, respiratory etiquette are the main armaments presently to deal with this virus presently till effective treatment or vaccine becomes available in near future. We would like to suggest the Indian government to create a National Viral Disease Management Board on lines of National Tuberculosis Elimination program to prevent and control such viral outbreaks in future.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, MMIMSR, MMU, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India; Tel: 91-9761386415; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org