Table 1: Results on the relationship between BDNF and sleep.

Authors Aim Sample Methods Instruments Results
Rethorst et al. [19] Examine biomarkers associated with changes in hypersomnia and insomnia. 126 Individuals with MDD. Individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of aerobic exercise. Inventory of Depressive
Symptomatology (IDS-C).
Blood Analysis.
Reduction of BDNF levels associated with decreased hypersomnia.
Giese et al. [31] Investigate the serum BDNF level in adults with insomnia and compare them to a control group. 19 Individuals with RLS/PLM
7 patients with RLS
24 controls
BDNF levels were collected and correlated with the scores reported in the Insomnia Severity Index. Insomnia Severity Index.
Blood Analisys.
Insomniacs exhibit a significantly lower serum BDNF level than controls.
Rusch et al. [32] Determine the relationship between increased sleep quality and improvement of depressive symptoms. 44 Individuals with insônia. Subjects underwent a clinical evaluation and blood samples were taken from all participants. Participants were classified into two groups: sleep improved (n = 28) and sleep declined (n = 16).
Participants underwent 4-8 sessions of CBT for insomnia (CBT-I).
Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
Blood Analisys
The promotion of sleep quality is an effective way to improve depression and quality of life.
Giese et al. [30] Investigate whether the level of stress influences the association of sleep and BDNF levels. 7 Individuals without insomnia and with RLS/PLM
24 controls
11 Individuals with subclinical insomnia and with RLS/PLM
8 Individuals with insomnia and with RLS.
Patients underwent clinical evaluation where the data were correlated. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
Sleep is a mediator in the relationship stress and BDNF. Sleep disturbance may explain how some people cope well with stress and other people get sick.

Note: MDD = Major Depressive Disorder; RLS = restless legs syndrome; PLM = periodic limb movement.