Table 2: Studies reporting outcomes following composite nipple grafts.

Flap Authors N° Patients Projection (mm) Follow-up (months) Final projection (mm) Projection loss (%) Satisfaction rate (%)
Skate flap Shestack et al. [15]
Richter et al. [16]
Zhong et al. [17]
23
29
422
N/A
N/A
N/A
12
9
44
N/A
9.24
2.5
40.94
45
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Star flap Shestak et al. [15]
Banducci et al. [20]
Few et al. [21]
Kroll et al.[18]
Rubino et al.[26]
28
28
93
47
16
N/A
N/A
10-21
N/A
N/A
12
38
12
24
12
NA
NA
4-8.3
1.97
3.25
43.36
71.3
59
N/A
66.7
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
C-V flap Losken et al.[22]
Valdatta et al. [23]
El-Ali et al. [24]
11
29
50
N/A
N/A
N/A
60
12
15
3.77
3.52
2.17
N/A
32
45
81%
N/A
72%
Arrow flap Li et al.[25]
Rubino et al.[26]
N/A
16
N/A
N/A
3
12
NA
4.75
50
50.9
N/A
N/A
Bell flap Shestak et al.[15] 17 N/A 12 NA 73.95 N/A
Peri-areola/purse-string flap Dolmans et al.[27]
Shestak et al.[28]
14
47
N/A
N/A
12
12
5
N/A
50
N/A
82
N/A
Top-hat flap Gamboa-Bobadilla[29] 23 N/A 18 6 N/A 90
S-flap Cheng et al. [30]
Lossing et al. [31]
N/A
21
N/A
N/A
18
36
3.27
3.9
NA
80
86.4
82
Double-opposing tab flap Kroll et al. [18]
Kroll & Hamilton [32]
106

50
N/A

11.1
24

>10
2.43

3.8
NA

66
N/A

N/A