Table 3: Studies reporting outcomes of nipple reconstructions by means of traditional flaps.

Autologous Grafts Local flap Authors Grafts size N° Patients Projection (mm) Follow-up (months) Final projection (mm) Projection loss (%) Satisfaction rate (%)
Costal cartilage graft Arrow flap

Modified top hat
C-V flap
Guerra et al. [36]
Heitland et al. [37]
Cheng et al. [38, 39]

Mori et al. [40]
10 x 10 x 15 mm
N/A
10 x 10 x 10 mm

N/A
454
17
58

8
N/A
N/A
11.1

N/A
84
12
45

12.6
N/A
N/A
8.2

N/A
N/A
25
26.1

41
N/A
76.5
N/A

N/A
Auricular cartilage graft C-V flap

Bilobed
Trilobed flap
Jones & Erdman [41]

Tanabe et al. [42]
N/A

N/A
N/A
23

8
6
10

N/A
N/A
24

21.3
31.6
3.3

7,4
3.1
67

5.4
61
57

N/A
N/A
Fat graft C-V flap Bernard & Beran [43]
Eo et al. [44]
1-2 cc

1x1x2 cm
13

20
N/A

12-18
12

12
N/A

6-12
N/A

25-50
N/A

N/A
Dermal graft C-V flap Chia et al. [45] N/A 40 11.5 12 8 30 N/A

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