Table 1: Participation in undeclared work in urban areas in EU-28: by socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and region (n = 16,226).

Urban people engaged in undeclared work Earnings from undeclared work
Disclosed Don’t know; Refusal Mean
(%) (%) (%) (€)
All EU-28 4 73 27 662
Gender
Women 3 75 25 618
Men 5 71 29 693
Age
15-24 8 83 17 463
25-39 5 69 31 844
40-54 4 72 28 680
55+ 1 54 46 770
Marital status
Married/Remarried 2 68 32 730
Cohabitating 7 67 33 537
Single 7 84 16 664
Divorced/Separated/ Widowed/Other 3 61 39 711
Number of persons 15+ years in household
One 5 73 27 668
Two 3 74 26 733
Three 4 73 27 648
Four and more 5 69 31 473
Children
Not having children 4 72 28 598
Having children 4 76 24 785
Tax morality (mean=2.24)
Bellow mean 2 69 31 628
Above mean 7 74 26 673
Employment
Unemployed 4 71 29 583
Employed 4 74 26 736
Difficulty paying bills
Most of the time 9 74 26 617
From time to time 4 61 39 860
Almost never/never 3 81 19 587
Urban area
Small/ middle sized town 4 71 29 682
Large town 4 76 24 634
Region
Western Europe 4 83 17 548
Southern Europe 2 59 41 1186
East-Central Europe 4 53 47 479
Nordic Nations 6 93 7 939

Back to Article