Table 2: Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression of participation in undeclared work in urban areas.

Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Gender (Women)
Men 0.588*** (0.082) 0.643*** (0.083) 0.643*** (0.083)
Age (15-24)
25-39 -0.226* (0.123) -0.237* (0.129) -0.231* (0.129)
40-54 -0.614*** (0.135) -0.646*** (0.141) -0.648*** (0.141)
55+ -1.503*** (0.161) -1.512*** (0.162) -1.520*** (0.162)
Marital status (Married/Remarried)
Cohabitating 0.186 (0.127) 0.152 (0.128) 0.147 (0.128)
Single -0.007 (0.141) -0.053 (0.141) -0.046 (0.141)
Divorced/Separated/ Widowed/Other 0.101 (0.142) 0.031 (0.143) 0.029 (0.143)
Number of persons 15+ years in household (One)
Two -0.392*** (0.126) -0.371*** (0.126) -0.366*** (0.126)
Three -0.351** (0.141) -0.328** (0.142) -0.322** (0.142)
Four and more -0.366** (0.156) -0.331** (0.157) -0.318** (0.157)
Children (Not having children)
Having children -0.036 (0.101) -0.095 (0.101) -0.105 (0.102)
Tax morality 0.368*** (0.021) 0.358*** (0.021) 0.357*** (0.021)
Employment (Unemployed)
Employed -0.061 (0.094) -0.063 (0.094)
Difficulty paying bills (Most of the time)
From time to time -0.606*** (0.112) -0.622*** (0.112)
Almost never/never -1.019*** (0.115) -1.049*** (0.115)
Urban area (Small/ middle sized town)
Large town -0.062 (0.083)
Region (Western Europe)
Southern Europe -0.682** (0.316)
East-Central Europe 0.118 (0.254)
Nordic Nations 0.803** (0.368)
Constant -3.687*** (0.241) -2.942*** (0.263) -2.887*** (0.302)
Observations 16,226 16,226 16,226
Number of groups 28 28 28
Random-effects Parameters
Identity: Country
Variance (constant) 0.298*** 0.410*** 0.247***

Notes:*** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1; Standard errors in parentheses. All coefficients are compared to the benchmark category, shown in brackets.

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