Open Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1874-8449 ― Volume 6, 2019

Biomedical Applications of Interpenetrating Polymer Network System



Mohd Fuzail Qadri*, Rishabha Malviya , Pramod Kumar Sharma
Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract

Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) has been regarded as one of the novel technology in recent years showing the superior performances over the conventional techniques. This system is designed for the delivery of drugs at a predetermined rate and thus helps in controlled drug delivery. Due to its enhanced biological and physical characteristics like biodegradability, biocompatibility, solubility, specificity and stability, IPN has emerged out to be one of the excellent technologies in pharmaceutical industries. This article focuses mainly on the biomedical applications of IPN along with its future applicability in pharmaceutical research. It summarizes various aspects of IPN, biomedical applications and also in-cludes the different dosage forms based on IPN.

Keywords: Biomedical, double network, drug delivery, IPN, tissue engineering.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2015
Volume: 2
First Page: 21
Last Page: 30
Publisher Id: PHARMSCI-2-21
DOI: 10.2174/1874844901502010021

Article History:

Received Date: 4/6/2015
Revision Received Date: 30/6/2015
Acceptance Date: 28/7/2015
Electronic publication date: 30/10/2015
Collection year: 2015

© Qadri et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, noncommercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences,Galgotias University, Plot No. 2, Sector 17-A, Yamuna Expressway,Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India; Tel: +91 9716037762; E-mail: qadri14@gmail.com




INTRODUCTION

The concept of IPN goes back as far as 1914 and the first interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) was invented by Aylsworth and the term IPN was firstly given by Miller in 1960s in a scientific study about polystyrene network [1Lohani A, Singh G, Bhattacharya SS, Verma A. Interpenetrating polymer networks as innovative drug delivery systems J Drug Deliv 2014; 2014: 583612.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/583612] [PMID: 24949205]
]. An Interpenetrating polymer network may be defined as any material which contains two or more polymers in the network form [2Singh P, Kumar SK, Keerthi TS, Mani TT, Getyala A. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microparticles and advancement in novel drug delivery system: a review Pharm Sci Monitor 2012; 3(1): 1826-37.]. IPN is obtained when at least one of the polymers is synthesized or cross-linked in the immediate presence of the other polymer without any covalent bond between them [3Patel JM, Savani HD, Turakhiya JM, Akbari BV, Goyani M, Raj HA. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): A noval approach for controlled drug delivery Uni J Pharm 2012; 01(01): 1-11.].

In other words, IPN may also be defined as the combination of two or more polymers in the network form in which one polymer is cross-linked in the presence of other [4Rokhade AP, Patil SA, Aminabhavi TM. Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating microspheres of acrylamide grafted dextran and chitosan for controlled release of acyclovir Carbohydr Polym 2007; 67: 605-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2006.07.001]
]. There are three conditions of polymer which are necessary in the composition of IPN. These conditions are as follows [5Margaret MT, Brahmaiah B, Krishna PV, Revathi B, Nama S. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microparticles an advancement in novel drug delivery system: a review Int J Pharm Res Bio Sci 2013; 2(3): 215-24.]:-

1) At least two polymers must be synthesized and cross-linked in the presence of the other.

2) Both polymers have similar kinetics.

3) Polymers are not dramatically phase separated.

An IPN is differentiating from other polymer combination in two ways [6Kudela V. “Hydrogels,” in encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering. New York, NY, USA: Wiley 1987; pp. 783-807.]:-

1) IPN swells, but does not dissolve in the solvent.

2) Prevents the action of creep and flow.

They are also different from polymer complex and graft co-polymer because they either involve in chemical bond or in low degree of cross-linking. From this point of view only, IPN can be generally named as “polymer alloys” [7Work WJ, Horie K, Hess M, Stepto RF. Definitions of terms related to polymer blends, composites, and multiphase polymeric materials Pure Appl Chem 2004; 76(11): 1985-2007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac200476111985]
]. IPN is not prepared by normally mixing the two or more polymers and also does not produce from co-polymers. IPN based drug delivery system may follow zero order pattern with less fluctuation [8Jain N, Sharma PK, Banik A, Gupta A, Bhardwaj V. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of interpenetrating polymer network Curr Drug Ther 2011; 6: 263-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157488511798109547]
]. IPN is regarded as novel biomaterial. A combination of polymers, i.e. synthetic and natural polymers, is useful in increasing the release of short half-lived drug under physiological condition [9Banerjee S, Ray S, Maiti S, et al. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): A novel biomaterial Int J Appl Pharm 2010; 2(1): 28-34.]. If we increase the mechanical properties of IPN, it will be acceptable for preparing microsphere for controlled drug delivery [10Jain N, Banik A, Gupta A. Novel interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of lepidium sativum and poly (vinyl alcohol) for the controlled release of simvastatin Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 5(1): 125-30.]. The chemical and physical combination method as well as properties of multi-polymers play as important role in the controlled release of the drug because they help to provide a convenient route for the modification of properties to meet specific needs. Among these methods, IPN based drug delivery system is one of the newly developed method for designing the novel controlled release drug delivery system [11Rokhade AP, Shelke NB, Patil SA, Aminabhavi TM. Novel interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of chitosan and methylcellulose for controlled release of theophylline Carbohydr Polym 2007; 69(4): 678-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.02.008]
].

Double network gels also obtained from interpenetrating polymer network where the properties of two networks can be done in contrast such as, rigidity, molecular weight, network density etc. They are generally synthesized with the help of two steps:- in first step, they are synthesized by sequential free-radical polymerization process. In this process, the highly relative molecular mass is neutral. In the second step, polymer network is incorporated with in a swollen heterogeneous polyelectrolyte 1st network [12Kurokawa T, Gong JP. Super tough double network hydrogels and their application as biomaterials Polymer (Guildf) 2012; 53: 1805-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2012.03.013]
].

IPN formulation is one of the important/successful methods for developing a product with better physico-mechanical properties than the normal polyblends [13Dave VJ, Patel HS. Synthesis and characterization of interpenetrating polymer networks from trans-esterified castor oil based polyurethane and polystyrene. J Saudi Chem Soc 2013.]. IPN can be made in different ways. IPN is also found in the form of latex which is known as interpenetrating electrometric network (IEN) [14Jaisankar SN, Muralisankar R, Seeni MK, Mandal AB. Thermoplastic interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyvinyl chloride and polyurethane ionomers for damping application Soft Matter 2013; 11: 55-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1539445X.2011.580410]
]. Gradient IPN is one of the other forms which is formed when the film made with a network of one polymer on the one surface and the network of another polymer on the other surface, there is a gradient inside the film. On the other hand, when one polymer is cross linked and another is linear or branched, it is called semi-IPN [15Athawale VD, Kolekar SL, Raut SS. Recent developments in polyurethanes and poly(acrylates) interpenetrating polymer networks J Macromol Sci Polymer Rev 2003; 43: 1-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/MC-120018018]
].

IPNs can be prepared through different techniques as given in the literature but in-situ technique proves that it is the most convenient technique. In this technique, all reactants are combined together and reaction can take place with the formation of two networks which can be started at the same time [16Vancaeyzeele C, Fichet O, Boileau S, Teyssie D. Polyisobutene-poly (methylmethacrylate) interpenetrating polymer networks: synthesis and characterization Polymer (Guildf) 2005; 46: 6888-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.086]
]. The procedure for the synthesis of IPNs can be divided in to two categories-

1. Simultaneous synthetic method: In simultaneous synthetic method, both monomers are mixed together to form polymer network simultaneously through different reaction routes.

2. Sequential synthetic method: In sequential synthetic method, different network reactions are controlled sequentially by adding different monomers. Now a days, mostly commercial materials are prepared by sequential IPNs, because of their flexibility and easy to process ability.

When IPNs are used for coating purpose, they cannot be prepared by the sequential or simultaneous interpenetrating polymerization because of the presence of volatile monomer. For this purpose, they can be prepared from preforming pre-polymers which contain complementary functional groups that increase their miscibility [17Anzlovar A, Zigon M. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks with varying mass ratios of functional urethane and methacrylate prepolymers Acta Chim Slov 2005; 52: 230-7.]. In IPNs, cross linking of mutual chain entanglement produce finer dispersion of one polymer in to the other [18Merlin DL, Sivasankar B. Synthesis and characterization of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using biocompatible polyurethane and acrylamide monomer Eur Polym J 2009; 45: 165-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2008.10.012]
].

Advantages of IPN [19Wu X, He G, Gu S, Hu Z, Yao P. Novel interpenetrating polymer network sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone)/polyacrylic acid proton exchange membranes for fuel cell J Membr Sci 2007; 295: 80-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2007.02.039]
, 20Sperling LH. Interpenetrating polymer network and related materials. New York: Plenum Press 1981; Vol. 1: p. 265.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-3830-7]
]: There are the following inherent advantages due to which IPN system gained huge popularity in the modern era of polymers. They are as follows-

1. IPN system helps in increasing the mechanical strength, phase stability and biological acceptability of the final product.

2. IPN is also helpful in producing the synergistic effect from the component polymer.

3. Due to the infinite zero-viscosity of the gel, phase separation between the component polymers is not possible.

4. Due to permanent interlocking of the network segment, thermodynamic incompatibility can be made to overcome as the reacting ingredients are blended thoroughly at the time of synthesis.

5. IPN also potent to develop the controlled release system for delivering the drug.

6. When the blends are subjected to stress they keep the phases separate.

Disadvantages of IPN [21Shidhaye S, Surve C, Dhone A, Budhkar T. Interpenetrating polymer network: An overview Int J Res Rev Pharmacy Appl Sci 2010; 2(4): 637-50., 22McNaught D, Wilkinson A. IUPAC compendium of chemical terminology (the "Gold Book") Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications 2007; 2(2): 1815 1815.]: The main disadvantage of IPN is that, sometimes the polymers interpenetrate to such an extent and the drug released from the matrix becomes difficult. The problem with the non-covalent system is that it can also be a problem with the covalent system due to the lack of an effective interface.

Features of IPN [2Singh P, Kumar SK, Keerthi TS, Mani TT, Getyala A. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microparticles and advancement in novel drug delivery system: a review Pharm Sci Monitor 2012; 3(1): 1826-37., 23Suresh PK, Suryawani SK, Dewangan D. Chitosan based interpenetrating polymer network (ipn) hydrogels: a potential multicomponent oral drug delivery vehicle. Pharmacie Globale Int J Comp Pharm 2011; 8(1): 1-8.]: There are the following ideal characteristics of IPN which are as follows-

1. In ideal IPN creep and flow is suppressed.

2. IPN can swell but does not dissolve in solvent.

3. IPN has high tensile strength.

4. Most ideal IPNs are heterogeneous systems which contain one rubbery phase and one glassy phase to produce a synergistic effect yielding.

5. When the blends are subjected to stress, they keep the phases separated together.

6. IPN mainly forms insoluble network.

7. IPN systems differ mainly due to the number and types of cross-links.

8. They show adhesive property.

9. Hence, IPN based systems have gained good potential to develop the controlled release delivery of drugs.

IPN based Drug Delivery System: IPN based drug delivery systems are used to deliver the drug at a specific rate for desired period of time with low fluctuation.

Now a days, there are many approaches which are being used for improving the delivery of therapeutic materials like- films, hydrogels, tablets, capsules, microspheres, sheets, sponges, matrix, transdermal patches, nanoparticles etc. some of the important IPN based drug delivery systems are discussed here [24Hou X, Siow KS. Novel interpenetrating polymer network electrolytes Elsev Polymer 2001; 42(9): 4181-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00818-1]
].

Films: IPN based films are used as piezodialysis membrane which are non-mosaic membrane. The important application of IPN delivery system is the uralkyd/poly (glycidylmethacrylate) based film which shows better mechanical and tensile strength [3Patel JM, Savani HD, Turakhiya JM, Akbari BV, Goyani M, Raj HA. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): A noval approach for controlled drug delivery Uni J Pharm 2012; 01(01): 1-11., 25Kim IY, Yoo MK, Seo JH, et al. Evaluation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of chitosan and poloxamer for wound dressing application Int J Pharm 2007; 341(1-2): 35-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.03.042] [PMID: 17482781]
]. Biodegradable collagen films or matrices have served as scaffolds for the survival of transfected fibroblasts [26Rosenthal FM, Köhler G. Collagen as matrix for neo-organ formation by gene-transfected fibroblasts Anticancer Res 1997; 17(2A): 1179-86.
[PMID: 9137468]
].

IPN based films which are prepared by the mixture of collagen and polyvinyl alcohol, cross-linked with glutaraldehyde vapor shows depot formulation for recombinant human growth hormones [27Cascone MG, Sim B, Downes S. Blends of synthetic and natural polymers as drug delivery systems for growth hormone Biomaterials 1995; 16(7): 569-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0142-9612(95)91131-H] [PMID: 7492722]
]. In many animal models, after implantation of transfected cells, a long term expression of the foreign gene has not been achieved [28Ramaraj B, Radhakrishnan G. Hydrogel capsules for sustained drug release J Appl Polym Sci 1994; 51: 979-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.1994.070510602]
]. Suh et al., studied the graft copolymerization of type I atelocollagen onto the surface of polyurethane (PU) films treated with ozone was performed [29Park JC, Hwang YS, Lee JE, et al. Type I atelocollagen grafting onto ozone-treated polyurethane films: cell attachment, proliferation, and collagen synthesis J Biomed Mater Res 2000; 52(4): 669-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4636(20001215)52:4<669::AID-JBM11>3.0.CO;2-U] [PMID: 11033549]
]. It has been observed that they could enhance an attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts and growth of cells.

An interesting use of thermo-responsive polymer films was shown by Zakharchenko et al., prepared a belayed of PVCL on top of PNIPAAm with encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles [30Ward MA, Georgiou TK. Thermoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications Polymers (Basel) 2011; 3: 1215-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym3031215]
]. At temperatures greater than the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) the films were flat and allowed for adsorption of nanoparticles, cells or drugs onto the surface, upon cooling the films rolled up entrapping the absorbed particles which could then be released by heating again. This is a novel approach for the encapsulation and release of nanoparticles and cells with the addition of the magnetic particles allowing manipulation of the films by an external field [31Zakharchenko S, Puretskiy N, Stoychev G, Stamm M, Ionov L. Temperature controlled encapsulation and release using partially biodegradable thermo-magneto-sensitive self-rolling tubes Soft Matter 2010; 6: 2633-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0sm00088d]
]. Some of the IPN based films with their applications are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based films.




Table 2

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based hydrogel.




Table 3

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based microspheres.




Table 4

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based tablets.




Table 5

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based sponges.




Table 6

List of the drugs delivered through IPN based capsules.




Table 7

List of biomedical applications.




Hydrogel: To determine potential in a drug delivery system, hydrogel formulations were prepared by the combination of polymers [45Bhardwaj V, Harit G, Kumar S. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): novel approach in drug delivery Int J Drug Develop Res 2012; 4(3): 41-54.]. Hydrogels are the three dimensional polymeric network which are chemically cross-linked [46Peppas NA, Bures P, Leobandung W, Ichikawa H. Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000; 50(1): 27-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0939-6411(00)00090-4] [PMID: 10840191]
] and have the capacity to hold the water in its structure due to the presence of hydrophilic functional groups [47Zhao Y, Kang J, Tan TW. Salt, pH and temperature responsive semi-interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel based on poly (aspartic acid) and poly (acrylic acid) Polymer (Guildf) 2006; 47(22): 7702-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.08.056]
].

Development of Smart Drug Delivery System (SDDS) which is also known as Stimuli-sensitive delivery system is one of the major success in drug delivery by IPN Hydrogels. The concept of SDDS is based on the conversion of physic-chemical properties of the polymer system [48Lohani A, Singh G, Bhattacharya SS, Verma A. Interpenetrating polymer networks as innovative drug delivery systems J Drug Deliv 2014; 2014: 583612.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/583612] [PMID: 24949205]
]. Hydrogels are widely used in drug carrier because of its self-application and due to its easily manufacturing. IPN Hydrogels were prepared to increase the mechanical strength of the natural polymers. Hydrogels was also found resilient and stable [49Suri S, Schmidt CE. Photopatterned collagen-hyaluronic acid interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels Acta Biomater 2009; 5(7): 2385-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.05.004] [PMID: 19446050]
]. Environmentally sensitive hydrogels can be produced from hydrophilic, stimuli-responsive polymer networks that can change the volume in response to an external signal such as a change in temperature or chemical environment. These materials are attractive and candidate for various biomedical applications and artificial muscles [50Naficy S, Kawakami S, Sadeghovaad S, Wakisaka M, Spinks GM. Mechanical properties of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on hybrid ionically and covalently crosslinked networks J Appl Polym Sci 2013; 130(4): 2504-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.39417]
]. In situ forming IPN hydrogels of calcium alginate and dextran hydroxyethyl-methacrylate were developed and evaluated for protein release as well as for the behavior of embedded cells. It was observed that after an initial burst release bovine serum albumin was gradually released from the IPN hydrogels for up to 15 days. Encapsulation of expanded chondrocytes in the IPNs revealed that cells remained viable and were able to re-differentiate. IPN was described as a promising system as injectable in situ forming hydrogels for protein delivery and tissue engineering applications [51Ray R, Maity S, Mandal S, Chatterjee TK, Sa B. Studies on the release of ibuprofen from al3+ ion cross-linked homopolymeric and interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethyl xanthan and sodium alginate Adv Polym Technol 2011; 30(1): 1-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adv.20199]
].

Eltjani-Eltahir Hago et al. developed interpenetrating polymer network PVA/GE hydrogels by a combination of enzymatic and physical methods, used freezing-thawing process and in situ with synthesis of gelatin/mTG in PVA solution. The morphology and crystalline structures of interpenetrating polymer network PVA/GE were also observed by some experimental analysis techniques, such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Moreover, in order to understand the initial behavior of fibroblasts cells, proliferation was assessed in vitro using fibroblast like L 929 cell culture [52Hago EE, Li X. Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on gelatin and pva by biocompatible approaches: synthesis and characterization. Adv Mater Sci Engin 2013; pp. 1-8.].

Steffensen et al., developed soft hydrogels interpenetrating silicone, a polymer network for drug-releasing medical devices. IPN materials with PHEMA content in the range of 13%–38% (w/w) were synthesized by using carbon dioxide-based solvent mixtures under high pressure. These IPNs were characterized with regard to microstructure as well as ability of the hydrogel to form a surface-connected hydrophilic carrier network inside the silicone. A critical limit for hydrogel connectivity was found both via simulation and by visualization of water uptake in approximately 25% (w/w) PHEMA, indicating that entrapment of gel occurs at low gel concentrations. The optimized IPN material was loaded with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and the resulting drug release was shown to inhibit bacterial growth when placed on agar, thus demonstrating the potential of this IPN material for future applications in drug-releasing medical devices [114Steffensen SL, Vestergaard MH, Møller EH, et al. Soft hydrogels interpenetrating silicone-A polymer network for drug-releasing medical devices J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2015; 00B(00): 1-9.
[PMID: 25892578]
]. Some of the IPN based hydrogels with their applications are shown in Table 2.

Microspheres: Microspheres are one of the classes of newest IPN based drug delivery system. Microspheres are free flowing powder, which are solid usually small spherical particles made up of natural or synthetic polymers and ideally having a particles size range from 1-1000 µm in diameter [63Lohani A, Gangwar PC. Mucoadhesion: a novel approach to increase gastroretention Chronicl Young Sci 2013; 3: 121-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-5186.98684]
]. Microspheres are the carrier linked delivery system having a core which contains drug and outer layer of polymer as coating material [64Swapna S, Balaji A, Shankar MS, Vijendar A. Microspheres as a promising mucoadhesive drug delivery system-review Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013; 23(2): 8-14.]. IPN microspheres are the versatile carrier for controlled release of the drug and also for the targeting application because they encapsulate a wide range of drugs, increased bioavailability, biocompatibility, patient compliance and sustained release characteristics [65Bhattacharya SS, Mazahir F, Banerjee S, Verma A, Ghosh A. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of xanthan gum facilitated superabsorbent polymeric microspheres Carbohydr Polym 2013; 98(1): 64-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.011] [PMID: 23987317]
]. The hydrogel microspheres were developed from the formulation of polyvinyl alcohol and Guar gum for controlled delivery of Nifedipine by emulsion cross-linking method for the treatment in severe hypertension [66Soppimath KS, Kulkarni AR, Aminabhavi TM. Controlled release of antihypertensive drug from the interpenetrating network poly(vinyl alcohol)-guar gum hydrogel microspheres J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2000; 11(1): 27-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156856200743472] [PMID: 10680606]
].

Ray et al., developed an interpenetrating polymer network based on microspherical formulation from Sodium alginate and Polyvinyl alcohol by the emulsion cross-linking method in which Glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linker. This IPN based formulation was used for the controlled release of Diclofenac Sodium [67Ray S, Maiti S, Banerjee S, et al. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): a novel biomaterial Int J Appl Pharm 2010; 2(1): 28-34.]. Interpenetrating polymer network based microspheres was also used as a carrier for prolonged delivery of anti-cancer drug [3Patel JM, Savani HD, Turakhiya JM, Akbari BV, Goyani M, Raj HA. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN): A noval approach for controlled drug delivery Uni J Pharm 2012; 01(01): 1-11.].

The rationale of developing mucoadhesive microspheres are that the formulation will be confined on the biological surface for localized delivery of the drug and the drug will be released close to the site of action with continuous enhancement of bioavailability [68Alexander A, Tripathi DK, Verma T, Maurya J, Patel S. Mechanism responsible for mucoadhesion of mucoadhesive drug delivery system: a review Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2011; 2(1): 434-45.]. IPN microspheres based on Xanthan gum and Polyvinyl alcohol were developed by emulsion cross-linked method to deliver the anti-inflammatory drug. In this formulation Glutaraldehyde is used as cross-linker [8Jain N, Sharma PK, Banik A, Gupta A, Bhardwaj V. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of interpenetrating polymer network Curr Drug Ther 2011; 6: 263-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157488511798109547]
].

Al-Kahtani AA et al., prepared semi-interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of chitosan-(dextran-g-acrylamide) by emulsion cross-linking method.

Glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent. Theophylline, an antiasthmatic drug was successfully incorporated into it by varying the ratio of dextran-g-acrylamide and amount of glutaraldehyde. The % encapsulation efficiency in between 50 and 78 was achieved. In-vitro release studies of theophylline from these matrices at pH 1.2 and 7.4 dissolution media demonstrated that slow release was extended up to18 hrs at 37°C [69Al-Kahtani AA, Sherigara BS. Controlled release of theophylline through semi-interpenetrating network microspheres of chitosan-(dextran-g-acrylamide) J Mater Sci Mater Med 2009; 20(7): 1437-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-009-3704-6] [PMID: 19252971]
]. Some of the IPN based microspheres with their applications are shown in Table 3.

Tablets: IPN can also be used for preparing an extended release matrix tablet from Chitosan / Carbapol inter-polymer complex. IPN based tablets are solid in nature and have great potential for anti-hypertensive action by blending with hydrophilic inter-polymer complexes or a hydrophobic waxy polymer [81Abdelbary GA, Tadros MI. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel nicorandil extended release matrix tablets based on hydrophilic interpolymer complexes and a hydrophobic waxy polymer Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2008; 69(3): 1019-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.01.011] [PMID: 18295465]
]. Kulkarni et al., prepared IPN matrix tablets of sodium alginate and carrageenan for controlled release of Propranolol HCl. by wet granulation/covalent cross-linking method and subsequently compressed into tablets. The pure drug showed rapid and complete dissolution within 60 min but IPN based tablets showed slower and prolonged drug release over 18 h. The study concluded that the cross-linking time of granules affected the release of drug from IPN matrix [82Kulkarni RV, Baraskar VV, Setty CM, Sa B. Interpenetrating polymer network matrices of sodium alginate and carrageenan for controlled drug delivery application Fiber Polymer 2011; 12: 352-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12221-011-0352-5]
]. Some of the IPN based tablets with their applications are shown in Table 4.

Sheet: Sheeting is one of the new method of producing IPN based drug delivery system [70Banerjee S, Chaurasia G, Pal DK, Ghosh AK, Ghosh A, Kaity S. Investigation on cross-linking density for development of novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) based formulation J Sci Ind Res 2010; 69: 777-84.]. These are mainly used in various types of wound dressings and scar management products [85Schutyser JA, Boonstra TO. Schutyser JAJ, Boonstra TO Interpenetrating polymer network of an aliphatic polyol(allyl carbonate) and epoxy resin US Patent 1990.]. An IPN composed of polymeric material like polyol (allyl carbonate) e.g. nouryset®200 and epoxy resin is developed by 70-95 parts by weight of polyol (allyl carbonate) by means of radical initiation and polymerizing partially or completely concurrently is an epoxy resin forming mixture composed of 10-90 weight % of aliphatic or cycloaliphatic epoxide and 90-10 weight % of polyol/anhydride adduct [86Dillon ME. Process for the manufacture of interpenetrating polymer network sheeting and useful articles thereof US Patent 2006.].

Sponges: IPN based sponges are also used as drug delivery system. They were mainly used in wound dressings and hemostyptics and also very helpful in the treatment of severe burns [87Chvapil M. Considerations on manufacturing principles of a synthetic burn dressing: a review J Biomed Mater Res 1982; 16(3): 245-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.820160306] [PMID: 7045127]
]. The advantages of collagen are-

a) Their capacity to easily take up large quantities of tissue exudates and provide smooth adherence to the wet wound bed with preservation of moist climate.

b) Its protection against mechanical harm and secondary bacterial infection.

Collagen also promotes growth and cellular mobility and hence, inflammatory cells can actively penetrate the porous scaffold. Due to this a highly vascularized granulation bed is formed which encourages the creation of new granulation tissue and epithelium on the wound [25Kim IY, Yoo MK, Seo JH, et al. Evaluation of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of chitosan and poloxamer for wound dressing application Int J Pharm 2007; 341(1-2): 35-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.03.042] [PMID: 17482781]
]. Collagen-based materials can be produced into a three-dimensional sponge for use as a wound dressing and as a support for cell cultured skin components [88Doillon CJ. Porous collagen sponge wound dressings: in vivo and in vitro studies J Biomater Appl 1988; 2(4): 562-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088532828700200404] [PMID: 3058927]
]. Some of the IPN based sponges with their applications are shown in Table 5.

Capsules: IPN based capsules are one of the important approach for delivery of drug. IPN capsules are also used as drug delivery systems for sustain release of drug. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) hydrogel capsules consists of polyacrylamide and polyvinyl alcohol for sustained drug release. Supracolloidal IPN reinforced capsules using micron‐sized colloidosomes of poly(methyl methacrylate‐co‐di-vinyl benzene) micro gels were used as scaffold via radical polymerization of the interior phase to produce hollow supracolloidal structures with a raspberry core-shell morphology [93Stefan AF, Bon SC, Colver PJ. Colloidosomes as micron‐sized polymerisation vessels to create supracolloidal interpenetrating polymer network reinforced capsules Soft Mater 2007; 3: 194-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B612066K]
]. Some of the IPN based capsules with their applications are shown in Table 6.

Biomedical Applications of IPN Based Drug Delivery System: Some of the biomedical applications of IPN based drug delivery systems with their applications are shown in Table 7.

CONCLUSION

It can be concluded from the whole literature survey that IPN based systems have wide applications in pharmaceuticals and medical sciences. IPN based polymeric materials can significantly change the release behavior of drug, protein/peptide, hormones and medicinal active agents. The study of IPN for drug delivery system may be helpful in understanding of critical diseases like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer and cardiac diseases as well as inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and meningitis etc. IPN is mainly used as a carrier system for delivery of short biological half-life drugs. IPN has various advantages like excellent swelling capacity, specificity, and mechanical strength which play an important role in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Current study supports the theory that IPN can provide the resources to deliver the drugs at a prolonged controlled release for specific targets. IPN based biomaterials can serve as a potential candidate for tissue engineering and drug delivery system and are expected to become a useful matrix substance for various biomedical and therapeutic applications in the future.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Authors would like to thanks Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical and Allied Sciences, Galgotias University and NISCAIR (National Institute of Science Communications and Information Resources), New Delhi for providing library facilities.

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"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


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(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
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"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

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Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

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Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

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Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
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Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

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(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

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Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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