Table 1: List of available dosage form designs for gastric retention.

Dosage form Process Raw materials Characteristics of the product Ref. no.
Ofloxacin-loaded pellets Extrusion-spheronization Ethyl cellulose, sodium bicarbonate, Eudragit RL 30D Floats and retards the release over 8 h [13]
Norfloxacin Microballoons Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®L100, Eudragit®RS 100 Intestinal pH dependent release [14]
Bumetanide pellets Fluid bed layering and coating Eudragit®RS 100, Tri ethyl citrate, sodium chloride Porous nature with sustained release [15]
Levodopa novel unfolded CR-GRDF Solvent evaporation Gelatin, L-polylactic acid, ethyl cellulose, carbidopa, Eudragit®S 100 Sustained drug release over 9 h [16]
Novel floating effervescent Ion exchange resins Eudragit®RS 100 and sodium bi carbonate Floated over 24 h [17]
Diclofenac potassium pellets Extrusion–spheronization Eudragit®NE 30D, Eudragit®RS 30D and Kollicoat®SR 30D Controls the release and fluctuations [18]
Metformin hydrochloride matrix tablets Direct compression Polyethylene oxide and Eudragit®L100 Unaffected by gastric pH [19]
Levodopa floating coated mini-tabs Melt granulation and compression Eudragit®RL 30D, acetyl tri ethyl citrate Buoyancy over 13 h and sustained release over 20 h [20]
Riboflavin unfolding dosage form Accordion pill technology Eudragit® L and Eudragit® S plasticized with tri ethyl citrate prolongs the gastric residence time [21]
Diltiazem hydrochloride floating microspheres Ionotropic gelation method sodium alginate, calcium chloride, calcium carbonate, Eudragit®RS 30D and chitosan Excellent floating ability with suitable drug release pattern over 24 h [22]
Rabeprazole sodium enteric coated tablet Wet granulation and direct compression Colorcoat EC4S, Mannitol SD 200, microcrystalline cellulose and kollidon CL Provides resistance to acidic environment and facilitates sustained release in alkaline conditions [23]
Matrix tablet Direct compression Kollidon SR, Propanolol hydrochloride Sustained the release over 24 h with fickian diffusion [24]
Riboflavin microballoon Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®RS 100 and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose Urinary excretion was sustained [25]
Ketoprofen floating microparticles Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®S 100 and Eudragit®RL 100 Gave higher percentage yield and better buoyancy [26]
Riboflavin microballoons Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®S 100, HPMC, PVA, dichloro methane and ethanol Drug release from microballoons and total urinary excretion were strongly correlated [27]
Verapamil floating pellets Wet granulation and spheronization Povidone K 30, Eudragit®NE 30 D, Eudragit®L 30 D, triethyl citrate, talcum Floated for 6 h and gave improved pharmacokinetics than the conventional tablet [28]
Microballoons Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®S 100 and monostearin Optimum temperature of 40 °C gave better buoyancy and retarded release due to smooth surface. Drug entrapment was high due to higher distribution coefficient [29]
Riboflavin microballoons Emulsion solvent diffusion Eudragit®RS 100 and HPMC Gamma scintigraphy technique confirms that the floating microballoons retained for longer time period in comparison to the non-floating in fed conditions, both half life and the total urinary excretion of drug increases significantly [30]
Avidin microstructured Delivery Microfabrication technology Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and Lectin Adheres to the intestinal mucosa, prevents drug degradation and sustains the release [32]