Open Pharmaceutical Sciences Journal




ISSN: 1874-8449 ― Volume 5, 2018
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Antimicrobial Studies and Characterization of Copper Surfactants Derived from Various Oils Treated at High Temperatures by P.D.A. Technique



Renu Bhutra1, Rashmi Sharma2, Arun Kumar Sharma3, *
1 Rajesh Pilot Govt. Polytechnic College, Dausa-303303, Rajasthan, India
2 Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan Govt. College, Ajmer-305001, Rajasthan, India
3 Govt. P.G. College, Jhalawar-326001, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Introduction:

Biologically potent compounds are one of the most important classes of materials for the upcoming generations. Increasing number of microbial infectious diseases and resistant pathogens create a demand and urgency to develop novel, potent, safe and improved variety of antimicrobial agents. This initiates a task for current chemistry to synthesize compounds that show promising activity as therapeutic agents with lower toxicity. Therefore, a substantial research is needed for their discovery and improvement. Chemistry of present era aims to build a pollution free environment. For the same, it targets to create some alternativeswhich are eco-friendly and nature loving. Present research work is a step towards achieving such alternatives.

Method:

For this the metallic soaps of copper (derived from common edible oils) were synthesized. The synthesized copper soaps have been confirmed by elemental analysis, UV, and IR spectroscopic technique. The fungicidal activities of copper soaps derived from soyabean, sesame oils have been evaluated by testing against Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus niger by P.D.A. technique.

Result:

The fungi toxicity results indicate that the strain of fungal species are susceptible towards these soaps and suggests that with the increase in concentration of copper soap it may increase further. The transition metallic soaps showed good antifungal activity because chelation increases the anti-microbial potency.

Keywords: Soyabean oil, Sesame oil, Copper Soaps, Antifungal, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 5
First Page: 36
Last Page: 44
Publisher Id: PHARMSCI-5-36
DOI: 10.2174/1874844901805010036

Article History:

Received Date: 26/7/2018
Revision Received Date: 14/10/2018
Acceptance Date: 15/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 14/11/2018
Collection year: 2018

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 173
Abstract HTML Views: 96
PDF Downloads: 59
ePub Downloads: 54
Total Views/Downloads: 382

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 116
Abstract HTML Views: 67
PDF Downloads: 45
ePub Downloads: 40
Total Views/Downloads: 268
Geographical View

© 2018 Bhutra et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Govt. P.G. College, Jhalawar-326001, Rajasthan, India; Tel: +919352669899; E-mail: sharmaarun423@gmail.com




1. INTRODUCTION

Surface active agents are very useful in biological systems, as well as play an important role in many industrial processes [1Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Synthesis, spectroscopic and fungicidal studies of Cu (II) soaps derived from groundnut and sesame oils and their urea complexes. Bulletin Pure& Appl Sci 2017; 36(2): 26-37.[http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2320-320X.2017.00004.8] ]. Exact information about micellar feature of copper (II) surfactants play a vital role in its selection in various fields such as foaming, wetting, detergents, emulsifier, herbicides, pesticides, paints, varnishes, wood preservatives, lubricants etc [2Bhati SK, Kumar A. Synthesis of new substituted azetidinoyl and thiazolidinoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazino (6,5-b) indoles as promising anti-inflammatory agents. Eur J Med Chem 2008; 43(11): 2323-30.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.10.012] [PMID: 18063224] ]. Anionic soaps containing copper ions play a vital role in various fields such as rubber industries, paints, varnishes, lubrication, protection of crops, stabilization of nylon threads, preservation of wood etc [3Sharma R, Sharma A K. Natural edible oils: Comparative health aspects of sesame, coconut, mustard (rape seed) and groundnut (peanut) a biomedical approach. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 2007; 1(5) : BJSTR.MS.ID.000441https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000441]. Inspite of all these applications, copper surfactants derived from various edible oils have not been thoroughly investigated. Many copper complexes are found to have significant anti-tubercular, fungicidal and antitumor activities [4Tank P, Sharma AK, Sharma R. Thermal behaviour and kinetics of copper (II) soaps and complexes derived from mustard and soyabean oil. J Anal Pharm Res 2017; 4(2): 1-5. [http://dx.DOI.org/10.15406/japlr.2017.04.00102].].Several workers described the uses of copper soaps as stabilizers for nylon threads, synthetic polyamides and polyesters [5Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) Soaps derived from Mustard and Soybean oils. J Pure Appl Ultrason 2017; 39(3): 92-9., 6Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Studies of Ultrasonic and acoustic parameters of complexes derived from Copper (II) surfactant of mustard oil with N and S atoms containing ligands in non- aqueous media (benzene) at 303.15 K. J. Acous Soc Ind 2017; 44(2): 87-99.]. The protection of fabrics, nets, cordage etc from fungi and decay by impregnating them in ammonical solution of copper soaps was described by several workers [7Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Viscometric and CMC studies of Cu(II) surfactants derived from untreated and treated groundnut and mustard oils in non-aqueous solvent at 298.15 K J. Inst Chemists (India) 2017; 90: 29-47., 8Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. A Pharmaceutical approach & antifungal activities of copper soaps with their N & S donor complexes derived from Mustard and Soyabean oils. Glob. J Pharmaceu Sci 2017; 3(4): 1-6. [https://doi.org/10.19080/GJPPS.2017.03.555619].]. The effectiveness of copper soaps as fungicides, bactericides, insecticides and herbicides were also studied. Recent development in metallic soaps preservation shows that zinc and copper napthanates, exhibiting no specific fungal weakness, can be used to prevent attack by wood boring insects the use of copper soaps as driers for the preparation of paints, varnishes and other protective coating. It was observed that the addition of copper soaps to fuel oil reduces the smoke and fumes of burning oil [9Kumar A, Rajput CS. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of newer quinazoline-4-one derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 2009; 44: 83 90.[https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.03.018]]. The use of copper linoleate as heavy-duty wood preservative and many other biological activities of copper metal containing surfactants have also been studied [10Sharma A K, Saxena M, Sharma R. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Biocidal activities of environmentally safe Agrochemicals. J Biochem tech 2018; 7(3): 1139-47.]. These facts led us to synthesize copper soaps of sesame and soyabean oils (Fresh and treated at high temperature at different times) and fungicidal activities was planned to study for exploring their applications.

2. EXPERIMENTAL

2.1. Synthesis

Soyabean and sesame oils are easily available in India and chosen for the investigation. Their compositions are recorded in Table 1. Three samples of each oil have been prepared as fresh (untreated), treated oil at high temperature for 15 minutes and for 60 minutes. Copper soaps were prepared by Direct Metathesis process as earlier reported [11Alananbeh KM, Al-Qodah Z. Al- A., Adly, El, Refaee, W.J.A.R. Impact of silver nanoparticles on bacteria isolated from raw and treated wastewater in Madinah, KSA. Arab J Sci Eng 2016; 42(1): 85-93. [https://DOI 10.1007/s13369-016-2133-3].[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13369-016-2133-3] ] and characterization was done by using elemental analysis, UV, IR methods.

Table 1
Composition of fatty acid in oils used for copper soap synthesis.


These soaps are abbreviated as follows:

  1. From untreated oils
    • 1    Copper soap of soyabean oil      CSo
    • 2    Copper soap of sesame oil         CSe
    •  
  2. From treated oils for 15 minutes
    • 1    Copper soap of soyabean oil      CSo15
    • 2    Copper soap of sesame oil         CSe15
    •  
  3. From treated oils for 60 minutes
    • 1    Copper soap of soyabean oil      CSo60
    • 2    Copper soap of sesame oil         CSe60

2.2. Determination of Molecular Weight of Copper Soaps

Molecular weights of Cu (II) soaps are determined from S.E [12Alanabeh KM, Al Refaee WJ. Qodah, Z. A. Antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles on selected fungi isolated from Raw and waste water. Indian J Pharm Sci 2017; 79(4): 559-67.]. The values of saponification value and molecular weights are recorded in Table 2.

Table 2
Various data of copper soaps derived from untreated and treated oils.


(1)

2.3. Reactions During Heating the Oils

2.3.1. Autoxidation

Literature independently suggested that the first reaction was between molecular oxygen and an ethylene bond with formation of peroxide which like hydrogen peroxide, was capable of oxidizing other compounds. It is further suggested that the initially formed peroxide changes by intra-molecular rearrangement to a tautomericenediol- ketohydroxide system. It is believed that the moloxide was the primary product of reaction and this rearranged to the peroxide and confirmed that the primary product of autoxidation of non-conjugated unsaturated acids or esters are hydroperoxides in which the double bond remains intact [13Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Antifungal activities of copper surfactants derived from neem (azadirectaindica) and karanj (pongamia pinnata) oils: A pharmaceutical application. Glob J Pharmaceu Sci 2017; 3(4): 1-6.].

2.3.2. Thermal polymerization

When the esters of di and tri ethenoid acids are heated above 200oC, they undergo certain changes. It is confirmed from literature that thermal polymerization of non-conjugated and conjugated octadecadienoates have concluded that the first step in the polymerization of the non-conjugateddienes is isomerization to the conjugated esters and that after configurational change to the trans -trans diene, this enters into diels alder condensation with conjugated or non-conjugateddiene, preferably the latter since this is present in greater proportions [14Mahajan K, Swami M, Singh RV. Microwave synthesis, spectral studies, antimicrobial approach, and coordination behavior of antimony(III) and bismuth(III) compounds with benzothiazoline. Russ J Coord Chem 2009; 35: 179-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1070328409030038] ]. As a result, average molecular weight of oil changes after heating. This fact is supported by several workers that the deterioration during frying is higher in the oils containing higher polyunsaturated fatty acids.

3. CHARACTERIZATION

3.1. Electronic Absorption Spectra

In order to confirm the formation of copper soaps derived from groundnut oil, the electronic absorption spectra was recorded on a Perkin-Elmer-Lambda-28 spectrophotometer.

3.2. Infrared Spectral Analysis

To study the structure of copper soaps derived from oils, the infrared spectra of these compounds in the present study were recorded in KBr disc by making use of Perkin Elmer infrared spectrometer. The IR absorption peaks are given in Table 3.

Table 3
IR absorption spectral frequencies of copper soaps derived from untreated and treated oils.


3.3. Fungicidal Activities

The fungicidal analysis procedure follows below steps as suggested by Booth and Hawks worth as follows:

3.3.1. Sterilization of Glassware’s

For biological activity the glassware were thoroughly washed and cleaned with chromic acid, followed by washed with distilled water and keep them in hot air oven at 160 oC for 24 h. All operations concerning inoculation are done in a completely sterilized chamber.

3.3.2. Inoculation

The artificial induction of micro-organism into a medium is called inoculation. The latter is the most fundamental technique for studying the growth characteristics of micro-organisms and for transfer and maintenance of culture under aseptic condition.

3.3.3. Preparation of Slant

Agar slants were prepared to inoculate microbial culture. To prepare agar slant, a required number of culture tubes were taken and about 12 to 15 ml of liquefied agar medium was poured in each of them. The tubes were now cotton-plugged and sterilized in an autoclave. After the sterilization was over, the tubes were taken out and were placed in slanting (stopping) position for sometimes, the tubes got cooled and the medium in them was solidified resulting in a sloppy surface.

3.3.4. Culture Media Used

In preparing a Culture medium for any micro-organism, the primary goal is to provide a balanced mixture of the nutrient that will permit good growth. Additionally, the culturing of micro-organisms requires Careful Control of various environmental factors which normally are maintained within narrow culture media.

3.3.5. Preparation of PDA

Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) are common microbiological media from potato infusion and dextrose (corn sugar) it was prepared by earlier reported method [15Garg BS, Kumar DN. Spectral studies of complexes of nickel (II) with tetradentateschiff bases having N2O2 donor groups. Spectrochim. Acta 2003; 59A: 229-34. [https://DOI:10.1016/S1386-1425(02)00142-7].].

3.3.6. Preparation of Sample Solutions

The calculated amount of the copper surfactants derived from sesame and soyabean were weighed in a standard flask and 103 and 104 ppm concentration of solutions prepared by serial dilution method.

3.4. Test Organism

The test organism was Alternaria alternate, and Aspergillus niger which was cultured and isolated from its natural habitat and identified morphologically .

3.5. Fungicidal Testing

The fungicidal testing procedure was exactly same as reported by Sharma et al. [16Sharma S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Synthesis, characterization, and thermal degradation of Cu (II) surfactants for sustainable green chem. Asian J Green Chem 2017; 2(2): 129-40. [https://doi.org/10.22631/ajgc.2017.95559.1015].].

The data were statistically analyzed according to the following formula [17Sharma AK, Sharma S, Sharma R. Thermal degradation of Cu (II) metallic soaps and their characterizations. A pharmaceutical application. Chronicles Phar Sci 2017; 1(5): 312-9.].

(2)

(% Inhibition)

C- Total area of fungal colony in plat without copper surfactants after 2 days.

T- Total area of fungal colony in plate with copper surfactants after 2 days.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Electronic Absorption Spectra

The spectra give information concerning copper-ligand binding. The electronic absorption spectra of copper sesame soap show that one broad band at about 670-680 nm (14925- 14706 cm-1) and a sharp band at about 280 nm (35714 cm-1). One broad band may be attributed to 2Eg→ 2T2gtransitions arising from MLCTabsorption bands which confirms the formation of copper sesame soap and proposes a distorted octahedral stereochemistry around the metal ion. Absorption peaks (λ<300nm) belong to π→ π* or n→ π* orbital transition of the ligand [18Sharma S, Sharma R, Heda LC, Sharma AK. Kinetic parameters and photo Degradation studies of copper soap derived from soybean Oil using ZnO as a photo catalyst in solid and solution phase. J Inst Chemists (India) 2017; 89(4): 119-36., 19Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) soap derived from seed oil of Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), in non-aqueous binary and ternary systems at 298.15K. Malasian J Chem 2017; 19(2): 99-110.].

4.2. IR Spectra

The detailed infrared absorption spectral studies reveal that there is a marked difference between the spectra of oils and that of corresponding copper soap. In the IR spectra of sesame oil, three distinct bands appear at 3008, 2925 and 2854 cm-1 due to =C-H stretching, -C-H symmetrical and –C-H antisymmetric stretching vibration respectively. Apart from these, oils show characteristic absorption bands of esters (because oils are esters of long chain fatty acids) [20Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Comparative studies of treated & untreated oils as Cu (II) surfactant s“ISBN978-3-659-83122-5 2017.]. In IR spectra of oil, two bands are observed at 1745 and 1164 cm-1. These bands may be assigned to C=O stretching and C-O stretching vibration of ester group. In the spectra of copper soaps, strong band in the region 2970-2840 cm-1 are due to C-H symmetrical and antisymmetrical stretching vibration of methyl and methylene group. There is complete disappearance of the characteristic bands of esters in the spectra of soap molecules and appearance of two new absorption bands in the region 1580-1610 cm-1(symmetricvibration of carboxylate ion) and 1380-1400 cm-1(anti-symmetric vibration of carboxylate ion). The absence of C=O band in the IR spectra of soaps show that there is a resonance in the two C=O bonds of carboxylate group [21Saxena M, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Comparative Studies of Treated & Untreated Oils as Cu (II) Surfactants 2017., 22Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Acoustic studies of Copper soap- Urea complexes derived from Groundnut and Seasam oils. J Phy Studies 2017; 21(4): 4601-6.]. A number of progressive bands are observed for both oils and soaps in the region 1300-1120 cm-1. Such progressive bands with medium or weak intensity are assigned to the wagging and twisting vibrations of the chain of successive methylene group of the soap molecule. Weak bands in the region 725-710 cm-1 may probably be due to methylene rocking vibrations of the straight carbon chain –(CH2)-. The bands in the region 750-450 cm-1 in the infrared spectra of these soaps are due to metal to oxygen bond stretching vibration. These are called characteristic absorption of metal constituent of each soap molecule [23Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) soaps derived from Groundnut and Sesame oils. Tenside Surf Det 2017; 55(2): 127-34.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/113.110544] ].In the IR spectra of CSe60 also, bands are present at about 3500 cm-1 (very weak), 1750 cm-1 (strong), 1625 cm-1 (weak) and 1100 cm-1 (weak). Appearance of these bands may be due to formation of various autoxidized products such as ene-diol, keto-hydroxide or carbonyl degradation products. In IR spectra of CSo15 and CSo60 bands are present at 3450 cm-1 and 1745 cm-1 which shows the formation of keto- hydroxide during the autoxidation reactions.

4.3. Fungicidal Activities

Copper soaps derived from untreated and treated oils have been screened for their anti-fungicidal activity against Alternaria-alternata and Aspergillus-niger at 1000 ppm and 10000 ppm by agar-plate technique [24Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Acoustic studies and other acoustic parameters of Cu(II) soap derived from non- edible Neem oil (Azadirectaindica), in Non-aqueous media at 298.15 Acta. Ac united Ac 2018; 104: 277-83.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3813/AAA.919170] ]. Copper soaps showed moderate activities against both the fungi.

A perusal of Fig. (1) reveals that all the copper soaps have significant fungitoxicity at 10000 ppm but their toxicity decreases markedly on dilution (at 1000 ppm). It is apparent that their efficiency increases with their concentration. Thus it is evident that concentration plays a vital role in increasing the degree of inhibition [25Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Synthesis, Characterization and fungicidal activities of Cu(II) surfactants derived from groundnut and mustard oils treated at high temperatures. J Inst Chemists (India) 2018; 90(3): 66-80., 26Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Micellar features and various interactions of copper soap complexes derived from edible Mustard Oil in Benzene at 303.15 K. Curr Phys Chem 2018; 8(1): 46-57.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1877946808666180102152443] ]. Fungicidal screening data revealed that at lower concentration the inhibition of growth is less as compared to higher concentration. From comparison of the results for both the fungi, it is found that all copper soaps are more potent (more toxic) against Aspergillus niger than against Alternaria- alternata i.e. inhibition of growth is higher for Aspergillus niger than inhibition of growth for Alternaria alternate (Figs. 2, 3).

Fig. (1)
Comparative germ inhibition for Cu (II) soaps derived from treated and untreated oils.


Fig. (2)
Presence of Alternaria Alternata on tomato.


Fig. (3)
Presence of Aspergillus Niger on bread.


It reveals that CSe is the least fungi toxic (% inhibition lowest) whereas CSo is the most toxic against both fungi. The activity (toxicity) of copper soaps derived from untreated oils is found to increase in the order:

CSo > CSe

For copper soaps derived from treated oils for 15 and 60 minutes, the results are same as copper soaps derived from untreated oils. CSe15, CSe60 is the least active and CSo15CSo60 is the most active against both fungi. The order of activity of copper soaps derived from treated oils for 15 minutes is as follows:

CSo15 > CSe15 CSo60 > CSe60:

From comparison of copper soaps derived from untreated and treated sample of oil, it is found that fungitoxicity increases with the increase of time of heating for oils. All the tests were performed in triplicate the standard deviation has been measured by the conventional measure of repeatability and the average was taken as final reading. The results of ANOVA for the antifungal activities for all sops complexes are shown in Table 4 [27Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Fungicidal activities of Cu(II) soaps derived from various oils treated at high temperature for biomedical use. SAJ Biotechnol 2018; 5: 1-6., 28Sharma A K, Sharma R, Saxena M. Biomedical and antifungal application of Cu (II) soaps and its urea complexes derived from various oils. Open access J Trans Med res 2018; 2(2): 40-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/oajtmr.2018.02.00033] ].The predicted R2 are in reasonable agreement and closer to 1.0 [29Sharma AK, Sharma R, Gangwal A. Biomedical and fungicidal application of copper surfactants derived from pure fatty acid. Organic & Medicinal Chem IJ 2018; 5(5) : OMCIJ.MS.ID.555680 [https:// DOI: 10.19080/OMCIJ.2018.05.55568], 30Sharma AK, Sharma R, Gangwal AK. Antifungal activities and characterization of some new environmentally safe Cu (II) surfactants substituted 2-amino-6-methyl benzothiazole. Open Phar Sci J 2018. 1-11 3-12 https://DOI:10.2174/187484490180501]. This confirms that the experimental data are well satisfactory. The descriptive statics results of Cu (II) soaps shown in Tables 5, 6 confirm satisfactory results in triplet. The result is statistically significant, by the standards of the study, due to p < F.

CSe60 > CSe15 > CSe

CSo60 > CSo15 > CSo

Table 4
ANOVA results for antifungal activities of Cu (II) soaps.


Table 5
Descriptive statics results for antifungal activities of Cu (II) soaps.


Table 6
Descriptive statics results for antifungal activities of Cu (II) soaps.


CONCLUSION

From the comparison between IR spectra of Cu (II) soaps of untreated oils and Cu (II) soaps of treated oils, it is found that there is no band in 3200-3600 cm-1 region in Cu (II) soaps derived from untreated oils. But in the IR spectra of copper soaps derived from treated oils, there are bands at about 3400-3500 cm-1, 1750 cm-1, 1625 cm-1, 1100 cm-1. These bands may be due to formation of various autoxidized products such as enediol, keto-hydroxide or carbonyl degradation products. The antifungal activities of copper soaps derived from various edible oils have been evaluated by testing these against Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger at different concentrations by agar plate technique. It has been suggested that copper soaps derived from the oils treated for longer period show maximum activity (inhibition of the growth) against both the fungi. Copper soaps derived from oils treated for lesser period show lesser activity and soaps derived from untreated oils show minimum activity against both fungi. The activity (inhibition of the growth) also increases with the increase in concentration of soap. These studies suggested that used oils available in the Indian market can be used as fungicidal, pesticidal or herbicidal agents as they show positive result.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No Animals/Humans were used for studies that are base of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors pay their sincere gratitude to Principal, S.D. Govt. college Beawar and S.P.C. Govt. College Ajmer, Rajasthan (India) for providing necessary research facilities to accomplish this study. IIT, Mumbai is gratefully acknowledged for providing spectral data.

REFERENCES

[1] Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Synthesis, spectroscopic and fungicidal studies of Cu (II) soaps derived from groundnut and sesame oils and their urea complexes. Bulletin Pure& Appl Sci 2017; 36(2): 26-37.[http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2320-320X.2017.00004.8]
[2] Bhati SK, Kumar A. Synthesis of new substituted azetidinoyl and thiazolidinoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazino (6,5-b) indoles as promising anti-inflammatory agents. Eur J Med Chem 2008; 43(11): 2323-30.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.10.012] [PMID: 18063224]
[3] Sharma R, Sharma A K. Natural edible oils: Comparative health aspects of sesame, coconut, mustard (rape seed) and groundnut (peanut) a biomedical approach. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res 2007; 1(5) : BJSTR.MS.ID.000441https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000441
[4] Tank P, Sharma AK, Sharma R. Thermal behaviour and kinetics of copper (II) soaps and complexes derived from mustard and soyabean oil. J Anal Pharm Res 2017; 4(2): 1-5. [http://dx.DOI.org/10.15406/japlr.2017.04.00102].
[5] Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) Soaps derived from Mustard and Soybean oils. J Pure Appl Ultrason 2017; 39(3): 92-9.
[6] Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Studies of Ultrasonic and acoustic parameters of complexes derived from Copper (II) surfactant of mustard oil with N and S atoms containing ligands in non- aqueous media (benzene) at 303.15 K. J. Acous Soc Ind 2017; 44(2): 87-99.
[7] Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Viscometric and CMC studies of Cu(II) surfactants derived from untreated and treated groundnut and mustard oils in non-aqueous solvent at 298.15 K J. Inst Chemists (India) 2017; 90: 29-47.
[8] Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. A Pharmaceutical approach & antifungal activities of copper soaps with their N & S donor complexes derived from Mustard and Soyabean oils. Glob. J Pharmaceu Sci 2017; 3(4): 1-6. [https://doi.org/10.19080/GJPPS.2017.03.555619].
[9] Kumar A, Rajput CS. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of newer quinazoline-4-one derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 2009; 44: 83 90.[https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.03.018]
[10] Sharma A K, Saxena M, Sharma R. Synthesis, Spectroscopic and Biocidal activities of environmentally safe Agrochemicals. J Biochem tech 2018; 7(3): 1139-47.
[11] Alananbeh KM, Al-Qodah Z. Al- A., Adly, El, Refaee, W.J.A.R. Impact of silver nanoparticles on bacteria isolated from raw and treated wastewater in Madinah, KSA. Arab J Sci Eng 2016; 42(1): 85-93. [https://DOI 10.1007/s13369-016-2133-3].[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13369-016-2133-3]
[12] Alanabeh KM, Al Refaee WJ. Qodah, Z. A. Antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles on selected fungi isolated from Raw and waste water. Indian J Pharm Sci 2017; 79(4): 559-67.
[13] Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Antifungal activities of copper surfactants derived from neem (azadirectaindica) and karanj (pongamia pinnata) oils: A pharmaceutical application. Glob J Pharmaceu Sci 2017; 3(4): 1-6.
[14] Mahajan K, Swami M, Singh RV. Microwave synthesis, spectral studies, antimicrobial approach, and coordination behavior of antimony(III) and bismuth(III) compounds with benzothiazoline. Russ J Coord Chem 2009; 35: 179-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1070328409030038]
[15] Garg BS, Kumar DN. Spectral studies of complexes of nickel (II) with tetradentateschiff bases having N2O2 donor groups. Spectrochim. Acta 2003; 59A: 229-34. [https://DOI:10.1016/S1386-1425(02)00142-7].
[16] Sharma S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Synthesis, characterization, and thermal degradation of Cu (II) surfactants for sustainable green chem. Asian J Green Chem 2017; 2(2): 129-40. [https://doi.org/10.22631/ajgc.2017.95559.1015].
[17] Sharma AK, Sharma S, Sharma R. Thermal degradation of Cu (II) metallic soaps and their characterizations. A pharmaceutical application. Chronicles Phar Sci 2017; 1(5): 312-9.
[18] Sharma S, Sharma R, Heda LC, Sharma AK. Kinetic parameters and photo Degradation studies of copper soap derived from soybean Oil using ZnO as a photo catalyst in solid and solution phase. J Inst Chemists (India) 2017; 89(4): 119-36.
[19] Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) soap derived from seed oil of Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), in non-aqueous binary and ternary systems at 298.15K. Malasian J Chem 2017; 19(2): 99-110.
[20] Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Comparative studies of treated & untreated oils as Cu (II) surfactant s“ISBN978-3-659-83122-5 2017.
[21] Saxena M, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Comparative Studies of Treated & Untreated Oils as Cu (II) Surfactants 2017.
[22] Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Acoustic studies of Copper soap- Urea complexes derived from Groundnut and Seasam oils. J Phy Studies 2017; 21(4): 4601-6.
[23] Sharma AK, Saxena M, Sharma R. Ultrasonic studies of Cu (II) soaps derived from Groundnut and Sesame oils. Tenside Surf Det 2017; 55(2): 127-34.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/113.110544]
[24] Khan S, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Acoustic studies and other acoustic parameters of Cu(II) soap derived from non- edible Neem oil (Azadirectaindica), in Non-aqueous media at 298.15 Acta. Ac united Ac 2018; 104: 277-83.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3813/AAA.919170]
[25] Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Synthesis, Characterization and fungicidal activities of Cu(II) surfactants derived from groundnut and mustard oils treated at high temperatures. J Inst Chemists (India) 2018; 90(3): 66-80.
[26] Tank P, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Micellar features and various interactions of copper soap complexes derived from edible Mustard Oil in Benzene at 303.15 K. Curr Phys Chem 2018; 8(1): 46-57.[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1877946808666180102152443]
[27] Bhutra R, Sharma R, Sharma AK. Fungicidal activities of Cu(II) soaps derived from various oils treated at high temperature for biomedical use. SAJ Biotechnol 2018; 5: 1-6.
[28] Sharma A K, Sharma R, Saxena M. Biomedical and antifungal application of Cu (II) soaps and its urea complexes derived from various oils. Open access J Trans Med res 2018; 2(2): 40-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/oajtmr.2018.02.00033]
[29] Sharma AK, Sharma R, Gangwal A. Biomedical and fungicidal application of copper surfactants derived from pure fatty acid. Organic & Medicinal Chem IJ 2018; 5(5) : OMCIJ.MS.ID.555680 [https:// DOI: 10.19080/OMCIJ.2018.05.55568]
[30] Sharma AK, Sharma R, Gangwal AK. Antifungal activities and characterization of some new environmentally safe Cu (II) surfactants substituted 2-amino-6-methyl benzothiazole. Open Phar Sci J 2018. 1-11 3-12 https://DOI:10.2174/187484490180501

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Advertisements


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.com
Copyright © 2018 Bentham Open