Table 3: Challenges faced during the implementation of LPC.

Challenges Ballard [32] Garza and Leong [33] Alarcón and Diethelm [34] Alarcón, et al. [35] Fiallo and Revelo [17] Kim and Jang [36] Koskenvesa and Koskela [37] Salem, et al. [38] Arbulu and Soto [39] Ansell, et al. [40] Ballard, et al. [41] Jang, et al. [42] Novaes, et al. [43] Kim, et al. [44] Sterzi, et al. [45] Alarcón, et al. [29] AlSehaimi, et al. [23] Hamzeh, et al. [46] Jara, et al. [47] Liu and Ballard [48]
Organizational inertia or resistance to change or “This is how I’ve always done it” attitude.
Lack of commitment to LPC implementation or negative attitude towards new systems.
Lack of human capital: Lack of understanding of new system.
Difficulty in making quality assignments, or lack of skills, training, and experience.
Lack of leadership or failure of management commitment.
Shortage of stakeholder support.
Lack of empowerment of field management or lengthy approval procedure from client and top management.
Poor use of information generated during implementation of LPC.
Contracting and legal issues or structure.
Partial or late implementation of LPC.
Bad team chemistry or lack of collaboration.
Bad work ethics and cultural issues.
Short-term vision.
Misinterpretation of PPC indicator.
Extra resources or More paper work or Extra staff or more meeting or additional time.
Lack of physical integration of all the stakeholders.
Inadequate administration.
Parallel implementation with other improvement programs.