The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal




ISSN: 1874-1207 ― Volume 13, 2019

One Thousand Dollar Assist Heart Pump for Patients from Developing Countries



Kun-xi Qian*
Jiangsu University, Biomedical Engineering Institute, Zhenjiang, 212013, China

Abstract

In spite of continuous improvements in device design and applications, the profound use of heart pump has been limited because of its high price. The available clinically applied heart pump costs mostly about 100 thousands US Dollars. The author has since long tried to develop a heart pump costing only 1000 Dollars for recovery or bridge to heart transplantation therapies. The device is a radially driven centrifugal pump with a brush-less DC motor and a streamlined impeller. Its bearing is rolling bearing using 4 to 6 needles, manufactured by special wear-proof polythene with super-high-molecular weight, thus the service life achieves more than 10 years. To avoid thrombus formation, a special purge system is introduced to the bearing, allowing the saline with heparin to be infused through the bearing into the pump. The bearing, therefore, keeps working in the saline, and absolutely no thrombus will be formed along the bearing. Animal experiments demonstrated that a 30 mL fluid infusion per hour is enough to prevent thrombus formation. With these improvements, the impeller pump has continuously run for 14 months in the laboratory, and no bearing wear can be measured. The device, weighing 150 g, is fully implantable, consumes approximately 9.6 W, delivers a 9Lmin-1 blood flow against a 120 mmHg mean pressure, and reaches a highest total efficiency of 24.7% for the motor (including the controller) and the pump. The device has been used in animal experiments together with an American artificial lung for more than one month in the University of Texas and also in human trials in the Taiwan University.



Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2007
Volume: 1
First Page: 11
Last Page: 12
Publisher Id: TOBEJ-1-11
DOI: 10.2174/1874120700701010011

Article History:

Received Date: 13/6/2007
Revision Received Date: 22/6/2007
Acceptance Date: 23/6/2007
Electronic publication date: 28/6/2007
Collection year: 2007

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1047
Abstract HTML Views: 695
PDF Downloads: 185
Total Views/Downloads: 1927

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 431
Abstract HTML Views: 410
PDF Downloads: 140
Total Views/Downloads: 981
Geographical View

2007 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Jiangsu University, Biomedical Engineering Institute, Zhenjiang, 212013, China; E-mail: kxqian@263.net




INTRODUCTION

The R&D of artificial heart has over 50 years’ history. In the first 25 years, the diaphragm pumps imitating the function and mechanism of the natural heart had demonstrated the feasibility of man-made mechanical pumps in support or replacement of both left and right ventricles partly or totally. As soon as people realized that the diaphragm pump is too complicated, the simple rotary pump has been investigated extensively in the recent 25 years. Now an axial pump has worked on a patient for more than 7 years [1P Houghton, "“Living with the Jarvik 2000: A five-plus year experience”", Artif. Organs, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 322-323, 2006.]. Sooner or later the heart pump will be an alternative to lacked natural donor heart in transplantation.

In spite of the technical progress in heart assist pump, its profound application has been limited because it costs about 100 k US Dollars. Most patients especially from the developing countries need a sufficient and reliable VAD but can not use such expensive device. The author has tried to develop a heart pump costing only 1000 dollars and has succeeded in the recent years [2KX Qian, "“Toward a durable impeller pump with mechanical bearings”", ASAIO J, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 290-292, 2002.]. This paper presents the structure and experimental results of the one thousand dollar heart pump and appeals for cooperation for further development.

METHOD

Fig. (1) is a schematic drawing of the one thousand dollar blood pump. It consists of a motor and an impeller (2) in a pump housing (1). The motor has rotor magnets (3) and motor coil (4) winded on an iron core. The impeller is fixed on the rotor, which is bore by 4 to 6 needles (6) onto a stick screwed on the stator. The structure of the needle bearing is shown in Fig. (2). It’s well known that the rolling friction is much smaller than the sliding friction and that the needle material of polythene with super-high-molecular weight has excellent anti-wear property, the service life achieves thereafter over 10 years.

Fig. (1)

Radial driven centrifugal pump with needles bearing and purge system.



Fig. (2)

Needle bearing structure.



Fig. (3)

The elegant pump costs only one thousand dollars.



Fig. (4)

The pump with artificial lung in animal experiments. The survival achieved over 1 month.



To prevent the blood penetrating into the gap between the rotor and the stator, a special purge system (5) is devised, allowing the saline with heparin to be infused through the bearing into the pump. The bearing, therefore, keeps working in the saline, and absolutely no thrombus will be formed. Animal experiments demonstrated that a 30 ml fluid infusion per hour is enough to prevent thrombus formation.

RESULTS

Fig. (3) exhibits this elegant pump which had once continuously run for 14 months in the laboratory, and no bearing wear could be measured. The device, weighing 150 g, is fully implantable, consumes approximately 9.6 watts power, delivers a 9L/min blood flow against a 120 mm Hg mean pressure, and reaches a highest total efficiency of 24.7% for the motor (including the controller) and pump. The device has been used in animal experiments together with an American artificial lung for more than one month [3DF Wang, "“Compact para-corporeal right heart and lung assist device for total heart and respiratory support in awake sheep”", ASAIO J, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 56A, 2005.] in the University of Texas (Fig. 4) and also in human trials in the Taiwan University [4SS Wang, "“Current status of heart assist and replacement in Taiwan”", Artif. Organs, vol. 20, pp. 1325-9, 1996.].

DISCUSSION

A simple, implantable, durable and reliable left ventricular assist device costing only one thousand US Dollars is presented, which may solve the present problems that hundreds and thousands patients, especially in developing countries, need a heart pump but cannot afford it due to its high costs. The author is ready to cooperate in further development of the device to be a clinically applicable device finally.

REFERENCES

[1] P Houghton, "“Living with the Jarvik 2000: A five-plus year experience”", Artif. Organs, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 322-323, 2006.
[2] KX Qian, "“Toward a durable impeller pump with mechanical bearings”", ASAIO J, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 290-292, 2002.
[3] DF Wang, "“Compact para-corporeal right heart and lung assist device for total heart and respiratory support in awake sheep”", ASAIO J, vol. 51, no. 2, p. 56A, 2005.
[4] SS Wang, "“Current status of heart assist and replacement in Taiwan”", Artif. Organs, vol. 20, pp. 1325-9, 1996.

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open