The Open Biology Journal




ISSN: 1874-1967 ― Volume 7, 2019
REVIEW ARTICLE

New Record of the Giant Timber Flies (Diptera: Pantophathalmidae) from Sartenejas Valley, Miranda, Venezuela



Humberto Carvajal-Chitty1, *, Aivlé C. Cabrera G.2
1 Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Valle de Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda, Apartado 89000. Caracas, Venezuela
2 Departamento de Química, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Valle de Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda, Apartado 89000. Caracas, Venezuela

Abstract

Giant timber fly Pantophthalmus bellardii (Austen 1923) have been collected at 1200 meters above sea level, at Sartenejas Valley, a campus of the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Miranda State, Venezuela. Giant timber flies are very difficult to find in nature and rarer yet in the urban environments. Their biology and interactions with environmental variables are virtually unknown. In Venezuela, these flies have been observed from 100 to 1100 meters above sea level. This record extends the geographical distribution of this rare timber fly within Venezuelan territory. An updated distribution map for P. bellardii in Venezuela is provided.

Keywords: Pantophathalmidae, Diptera, Giant, Flies, Venezuela, Pantophthalmus, Neotropical.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 7
First Page: 21
Last Page: 24
Publisher Id: TOBIOJ-7-21
DOI: 10.2174/1874196701907010021

Article History:

Received Date: 14/03/2019
Revision Received Date: 22/06/2019
Acceptance Date: 04/07/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 599
Abstract HTML Views: 320
PDF Downloads: 216
ePub Downloads: 188
Total Views/Downloads: 1323

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 405
Abstract HTML Views: 206
PDF Downloads: 145
ePub Downloads: 126
Total Views/Downloads: 882
Geographical View

© 2019 Carvajal-Chitty and Cabrera G.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Valle de Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda, Apartado 89000. Caracas, Venezuela; Tel: +58-424-1731315;
E-mail: hchitty@usb.ve






1. INTRODUCTION

Pantophathalmidae or giant timber flies are among the largest Diptera, with wingspan up to 10 cm [1Báez M. Contribución al conocimiento de los Pantophthalmidae de Venezuela (Insecta, Diptera). Bol Ent Venez NS 1983; 2(18): 133-6.-3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25]. Giant timber flies (Diptera: Pantophathalmidae) are very rare [1Báez M. Contribución al conocimiento de los Pantophthalmidae de Venezuela (Insecta, Diptera). Bol Ent Venez NS 1983; 2(18): 133-6.] and are endemic in Neotropical region [2Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
]. Actually, only 20 valid species are recognized in two genera: Opetiops (Enderlei, 1921) and Pantophthalmus (Thunberg 1919) [2Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
,3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25]. Tradi tionally, large size has been the most notable characteristic trait of the Pantophathalmidae.

Giant timber flies are living on dead or still alive trees [2Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
] on which their larvae feed of accumulated organic matter or the wood fermentation products. The adults emerge for the reproduction only and are aphagus (do not feed past larval stage).

Their regional geographical distribution has been covered by Val [4Val FC. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arq Zool S Paulo 1976; 27(2): 51-164.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11606 / issn.2176 - 7793.v27i2p51-164]
] and recently Amat [5Amat EC. New records of Timber flies (Dipetra: Pantophthalmidae) from Colombia. Entomotrópica 2005; 20(2): 95-6. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?em05017] has added important data about Panthopthalmidae distribution in Mexico and their biology in the Red Oak forest (for Pantophthalmus roseni (Enderlein 1931) within Mexico. Pujol-Luz and Souto Morgado [2Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
] offer new data about Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedeann 1821) records from central Brazil. Despite the recent progress on giant timber flies studies, very little information is available regarding their distribution in Venezuela.

Here we are reporting a rare case of the Pantophthalmidae urban record in Venezuela. Such record was made for the first time for Pantophthalmus bellardii for Sartenejas Valley (Miranda, Venezuela) at 1.200 meters above sea level [3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25], at the campus of Universidad Simón Bolívar (Fig. 1).

1.1. Collected Material

The University is inside a valley surrounded by evergreen primary forest. The main campus is encircled by the plantations of Pinus caribea, P. pseudostrobus and P.patula [6Baruch Z, Nozawa S. Abandoned coffee plantations: Biodiversity conservation or path for nonnative species? Case study in a neotropical montane forest. Interciencia 2014; 39(8): 554-61. Available from: https://www.interciencia.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/554-Baruch-8.pdf]. Nowadays, it is a very stable conifer forest that keeps the climate constant and protects the original forest.

Two specimens of Pantophthalmus bellardii (Austen 1923) [3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25], a male and a female, (Fig. 2) were found dead on the roof of the Química y Procesos building (QYP) at the central area of the campus.

The genus identification was done by Dr. Torsten Dikow, (Research Entomologist for Diptera of Smithsonian Institution Natural Museum of Natural History) and Val [4Val FC. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arq Zool S Paulo 1976; 27(2): 51-164.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11606 / issn.2176 - 7793.v27i2p51-164]
] was used for the final identification of the species.

The female was a 4.5 cm long (from tip of head to tip ovipositor) (Fig. 3), curve ovipositor; 3.6 cm length (Fig. 4). Abdomen coloration varies from black (female) to pale orange (male). Both specimens have beige parallel lines at the mesonotum. As it was noted by Val [4Val FC. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arq Zool S Paulo 1976; 27(2): 51-164.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11606 / issn.2176 - 7793.v27i2p51-164]
], the female is larger than the male.

The presence of P. bellardii at Sartenejas Valley (Miranda Venezuela) at 1200 meters above sea level, is an important extension of the altitudinal profile of the Panthopthalmidae records in Venezuela. It is also the first record of this family for the Miranda State.

Fig. (1)
Venezuela map with the location of the Universidad Simón Bolívar where the specimens were found.


Fig. (2)
Dorsal view of the male (upper) and female (lower) of P. bellardii collected at Sartenejas Valley, Miranda Venezuela.


Fig. (3)
Female coloration and characteristics of P. bellardii.


Fig. (4)
Male coloration and characteristics of P. bellardii.


Fig. (5)
Location of the current record of Pantophthalmus bellardii in Northern Venezuela (see legend inside the map).


1.2. Summary of the Pantophthalmus bellardii records in Venezuela

Panthopthalmidae are currently reported from only a handful of sites in Venezuela. Báez [1Báez M. Contribución al conocimiento de los Pantophthalmidae de Venezuela (Insecta, Diptera). Bol Ent Venez NS 1983; 2(18): 133-6.] recorded P. bellardii in Choroní (100 meters above sea level, Aragua State), El Limón (450 meters above sea level), Ocumare de La Costa (400 meters above sea level, Aragua), Rancho Grande (1100 meters above sea level, Aragua, Henri Pittier National Park) and Sierra de Perijá (800 meters above sea level, Zulia). Fig. (5) shows the current updated location and distribution of this species along the country.

The current distribution records of the Pantophthalmus bellardii [2Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
], [3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25] extends the current knowledge of the species distribution alongside the records from Colombia [5Amat EC. New records of Timber flies (Dipetra: Pantophthalmidae) from Colombia. Entomotrópica 2005; 20(2): 95-6. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?em05017], Brazil [3Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25] and Venezuela of the timber giant fly [1Báez M. Contribución al conocimiento de los Pantophthalmidae de Venezuela (Insecta, Diptera). Bol Ent Venez NS 1983; 2(18): 133-6.]. It is also the highest altitude above sea level at which the species have been encountered so far in Venezuela. This new record is important for the studies of the Giant Timber flies, which probably act as an important ecosystem engineers and forestry pests, facilitating organic matter flow in the Neotropical forests.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank the identification to genus level to Dr. Torsten Dikow, (Research Entomologist for Diptera of Smithsonian Institution Natural Museum of Natural History) which kindly help us with this material. Also to Dr. Solange Issa for her comments and suggestions for the present note. To Dr. M. Báez (Departamento de Biología Animal, Edafología y Geología, Universidad de La Laguna, España) y Dr. José Clavijo (Facultad de Agronomía Universidad Central de Venezuela) for their help in the search for bibliography associated with the giant timber flies in Venezuela and Dr. Viktor Banarov for suggestions regarding the manuscript.

REFERENCES

[1] Báez M. Contribución al conocimiento de los Pantophthalmidae de Venezuela (Insecta, Diptera). Bol Ent Venez NS 1983; 2(18): 133-6.
[2] Pujol-Luz JR, Souto Morgado G. 2019. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Pap Avulsos Zool 2018; 58e20185828
[http://dx.doi.org/ 10.11606 /1807- 0205 / 2018.58.28]
[3] Austen EE. A revision of the family Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) with descriptions of new species and a new genus. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1923; 551-98. Available from: https:// w ww.ma p re ss.co m/j/ zt/article/view/zootaxa.4122.1.25
[4] Val FC. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arq Zool S Paulo 1976; 27(2): 51-164.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11606 / issn.2176 - 7793.v27i2p51-164]
[5] Amat EC. New records of Timber flies (Dipetra: Pantophthalmidae) from Colombia. Entomotrópica 2005; 20(2): 95-6. Available from: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?em05017
[6] Baruch Z, Nozawa S. Abandoned coffee plantations: Biodiversity conservation or path for nonnative species? Case study in a neotropical montane forest. Interciencia 2014; 39(8): 554-61. Available from: https://www.interciencia.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/554-Baruch-8.pdf

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents




Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open