Table 1: Application of CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing system in cereal crops. Details on the name of the cereal crop, type of study, name of the promoter, method of transformation, and name of the gene-edited are added with respective references.

Name of the Plant Type of Study Cas9 Promoter sgRNA Promoter Method of Delivery Target Gene References
Rice Functional genomics CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET11 [31]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S OsU6-2 Agrobacterium-mediated OsMYB1 [32]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S U3 Agrobacterium-mediated OsPDS, OsBADH, Os02g23823 and OsMPK2 [22]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S U3 or U6 Protoplast transformation MPK5 [17]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S OsU6-2 Agrobacterium-mediated ROC5, SPP and YSA [34]
Gene editing CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsPDS, OsPMS3, OsEPSPS, OsDERF1, OsMSH1, OsMYB5, OsMYB1, OsROC5, OsSPP and OsYSA** [35]
Genome editing 2 × 35S U6 Agrobacterium- mediated TaLOX2 [22]
Multiplex editing capability with the endogenous tRNA UBI OsU3 Agrobacterium- mediated OsMPKs [33]
Multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot plants UBI/35S OsU3/U6 Agrobacterium- mediated 46 genomic targets [18]
Deletions and heritable small genetic changes induced UBI OsU6 Agrobacterium- mediated OsSWEET11, and OsSWEET14 [36]
Functional studies OsUBI OsU6, OsU3, and TaU3 Agrobacterium-mediated GW2, GW5, and TGW6 [37]
Functional studies 35S U3 Agrobacterium-mediated OsCYP97A4, OsDSM2, OsCCD4a, OsCCD4b, and OsCCD7 [38]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated Gn1a, DEP1, GS3, and GLW2 [39]
Functional genomics CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsRAV2 [40]
Knock-out ZmUBI U3 Agrobacterium-mediated ALS [41]
Knock-out pHUN411–C3C5 U3 Protoplast transformation EPSPS [42]
Knock-out ZmUBI U3 or U6 Agrobacterium-mediated TMS5 [36]
Functional genomics 2 × P35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated ALS [41]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsERF922 [43]
Knock-out pCXUN U3 Agrobacterium-mediated SBEI and SBEIIb [44]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6, U3 Agrobacterium-mediated OsNramp5 [45]
Functional studies CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsAnn3 [46]
Knock-out OsUBI U3 Agrobacterium-mediated OsCCD7 [47]
Knock-out pZH U3 and U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsFAD2-1 [48]
Knock-out UBI-1 U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsACC-T1OsALS-T1, OsCDC48-T3, OsDEP1-T1, OsDEP1-T2, and OsNRT1.1B-T1 [49]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated GS3, and Gn1a [50]
Functional studies CaMV 35S U3 Agrobacterium-mediated GS9 [51]
Functional studies 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated Bsrk1 [52]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated SAPK2 [53]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated elF4G [54]
Knock-out CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated Waxy [55]
Knock-out PUBI-H U6 Agrobacterium-mediated OsRR22 [56]
Knock-out CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated Wx [57]
Knock-out CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated ISA1 [58]
Wheat Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S U6 Agrobacterium-mediated Inox and PDS [59]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S U6 Protoplast transformation MLO [11]
Site-directed mutagenesis CaMV 35S U3 or U6 Particle bombardment TaMLO-A1, TaMLO-B1 and TaMLO-D1 [60]
Genome editing in wheat through transient expression UBI TaU6 Particle bombardment immature embryos [61]
Knock-out - - Protoplast transformation TaGW2(A1, -B1 and D1) [62]
Gene editing 35S U6 Biolistic TaGASR7 [63]
Functional genomics UBI U6 and U3 Agrobacterium-mediated TaPDS [64]
Functional genomics - TaU6 Agrobacterium-mediated TaDREB2 and TaERF3 [65]
Knock-out 2×35S U6 Biolostic TdGASR7 [66]
Genome editing ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated TaCKX2-1, TaGLW7, TaGW2, and TaGW8 [67]
Maize Targeted mutagenesis CaMV 35S ZmU3 Agrobacterium-mediated ZmIPK [25]
Targeted mutagenesis UBI ZmU6 Agrobacterium-mediated ZmLIG1, ZmM26, Zm45, and ZmALS1 [68]
Targeted mutagenesis UBI U6 Particle bombardment ALS2 [69]
Genome editing 2×35S U3 Agrobacterium-mediated Zmzb7 [27]
Gene editing UBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated MYBR and AP2 [70]
Genetic association GOS2 GOS2 Particle-bombarded ARGOS8 [71]
Targeted mutagenesis UBI ZmU6 Agrobacterium-mediated Argonaute 18 [72]
Knock-out - U3 Agrobacterium-mediated MS8 [28]
Knock-out 35S U3 Agrobacterium-mediated zyp1 [73]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated ZmLG1 [74]
Knock-out UBI U6 Particle bombardment SDN1 [75]
Targeted mutagenesis UBI U3 and U6 Agrobacterium-mediated 20 genes [75]
Gene editing 35SPPDK U6 Agrobacterium-mediated immature embryos [76]
Sorghum Functional genomics Rice Actin 1 U6 Agrobacterium-mediated DsRED2 [31]
Gene editing ZmUBI U3 Agrobacterium-mediated k1C [77]
Knock-out ZmUBI U3 Agrobacterium-mediated PMI [78]
Gene editing ZmUBI U3 Particle bombardment CAD and PDS [79]
Barley Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated HvPM19 [80]
Gene editing ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated hpt [81]
Fragment Deletions and Small Indels ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated ENGase [29]
Multiplex genome editing ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated HvCKX1 [82]
Knock-out ZmUBI U3 Agrobacterium-mediated HvMORC1 [30]
Gene editing CaMV 35s U6 Agrobacterium-mediated PDS1 [83]
Functional studies ZmUBI - Agrobacterium-mediated dsRED [84]
Knock-out ZmUBI U6 Agrobacterium-mediated hptII [85]

Abbreviations used: Ago; Argonaute, ALS; Aceto Lactate Synthase, Ann; Annexin, AP; Apetala, BADH; Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, CAD; Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase, CCD; Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase, CKX; Cytokinin oxidase, DREB; Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding protein, DsRED; Red fluorescent protein, ENGase; Cytosolic endo-beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, EPSPS; Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate, ERF; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor, FAD; Fatty acid desaturase, GASR; GA-induced protein, Gn; Guanine-nucleotide, GW; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, Hv; Hordeum vulgare, Hpt; Homogentisatephytyltransferase, Hpt; Hygromycin phosphotransferase, Inox; Inositol oxygenase, IPK; Inositol polyphosphate multi kinase, ISA; Iso amylase, k1C; Alpha-Kafirin, LOX; lipoxygenase, MLO; Mildew resistance locus, MORC; Microrchidia, MPK; Mitogen activated Protein Kinases, MS; Male Sterility, MYB; Transcription factor MYB, Nramp; Metal transporter Nramp, Os; Oryza sativa, PDS; phytoenedesaturase, PM; Protein Membrane, PMI; Phosphor Mannose Isomerase, RAV; Transcription repressor RAV,ROC; Rice outermost cell-specific gene,RR22; Two-component response regulator, SAPK; Serine/threonine-protein kinase, SBE; Starch branching enzyme, SDN; Small RNA degrading nuclease, SPP; Stromal Processing Peptidase, SWEET; Bacterial blight susceptibility genes, Ta; Triticum aestivum, TMS; Thermo-sensitive genic Male Sterility, YSA; Young Seedling Albino, Zm; Zea mays.