Table 5: Maximum effects of a medium/low-level blast load (BLAST-75 and BLAST 50) on the examined CW modular unit with VE or PL devices. (*): failure of the VE layer. (**): Vd,max = Vy,d .

Blast load Device # σg,max
[MPa]
Cracking
[Y/N]
σm,max ; Yielding
[MPa] ; [Y/N]
Vd,max
[kN]
umax / H
[-]
sd,max
[mm]
BLAST-75 M01 76.4 N 203.5 ; Y 34.6 0.0180 -
VE-01 37.7 N 124.8 ; N 21.1 0.0090 35.3
PL-01 52.9 N 161.9 ; N 17.6 ** 0.0118 25.6
BLAST-25 M01 44.4 N 162.3 ; N 24.3 0.0110 -
VE-01 19.3 N 64.14 ; N 9.9 0.0048 14.1
PL-01 40.74 N 137.35 ; N 17.6 ** 0.0067 13.1

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