Blasting vibration velocity is an important index to evaluate the stability of mine slopes under blasting operations.
In order to determine the blasting vibration safety criteria for slope rock mass scientifically and reasonably, the influence of stress waves on surficial rock mass of mine slopes was analyzed when stress waves propagate to the slope surface, and mathematical models for blasting vibration safety criteria are proposed based on the ultimate tensile stress criterion, the ultimate shear stress criterion and the Mohr-Coulomb criterion.
Combined with the field blasting operations during the open-pit to underground mining in Daye iron mine, the blasting vibration safety criteria is calculated. It is obtained that the blasting vibration safety criteria for the north slope and the south slope are 11.08cm/s and 10.20cm/s respectively. The results agree well with the Safety Regulations for Blasting in China and provide a reference to determine blasting vibration safety criteria for other similar projects.
In open-pit to underground mines, partial collapse of surficial rock mass always occurs because the open-pit slopes are subjected to underground blasting mining operations [1B.-H. Choi, C.-H. Ryu, D. Deb, Y.-B. Jung, and J.-H. Jeong, "Case study of establishing a safe blasting criterion for the pit slopes of an open-pit coal mine", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., no. 57, pp. 1-10, 2013.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.07.014] ], which trigger a serious threat to the workers and equipment. In order to ensure the safe production, it is the key technical problem to determine the blasting vibration safety criteria for slope rock mass scientifically and reasonably and to control blasting vibration effects.
The influence of blasting vibration on slope rock mass has been extensively studied. But most of these studies focused on the overall slope instability [2T.B. Afeni, and S.K. Osasan, "Assessment of noise and ground vibration induced during blasting operations in an open pit mine: A case study on Ewekoro limestone quarry, Nigeria", Min. Sci. Technol. (China), vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 420-424, 2009.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1674-5264(09)60078-8] -5M. Saadat, M. Khandelwal, and M. Monjezi, "An ANN-based approach to predict blast-induced ground vibration of Gol-E-Gohar iron ore mine, Iran", J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 67-76, 2014.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2013.11.001] ], and studies about the blasting-vibration-induced partial collapse of surficial slope rocks are rarely found. Kesimal et al. [6A. Kesimal, B. Ercikdi, and F. Cihangir, "Environmental impacts of blast-induced acceleration on slope instability at a limestone quarry", Environ. Geol., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 381-389, 2008.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0825-4] ] studied the influence of blasting vibrations on slope instability at a limestone quarry by analyzing the blast-induced accelerations. Yang et al. [7Y. Yu-jiang, L. Yan, and L. Jian-po, "Dynamic stability of open pit slope under blast loading", J. Northeastern Univ., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1472-1475, 2011. [Natural Science].] analyzed dynamic stability of open pit slope under blast loading based on time-history analysis and the software FLAC. Yan et al. [8Y. Yan, Y. Zhang, and C. Huang, "Impact of blasting vibration on soil slope stability", Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 19, pp. 6559-6568, 2014.] analyzed the variation of slope stability factors under blast loading by using the software GEO-SLOPE. The existing results show that numerical simulation is the main approach adopted to analyze the slope stability under blast loading [9Y. -q, YANG. J., YU, and D. -Y, "Study on simulation of discontinuous deformation analysis for slope stability under blast impact", Acta Armamentarii, vol. 74-78, no. S1, 2010.-11H.R. Azizabadi, H. Mansouri, and O. Fouché, "Coupling of two methods, waveform superposition and numerical, to model blast vibration effect on slope stability in jointed rock masses", Comput. Geotech., vol. 61, pp. 42-49, 2014.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2014.04.008] ]. Because of the complex action mechanism of blasts, the relevant theory study is relatively less.
In this paper, the surficial slope rock mass subjected blasting vibration in open-pit to underground mines is taken as research object. The mathematical models for blasting vibration safety criteria are proposed based on the ultimate tensile stress criterion, ultimate shear stress criterion and Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The value of blasting vibration safety criteria is calculated in case study and the results are proven to be reliable.
When blasting stress waves propagate to the slope surface, the reflection-induced tensile stress will loose the surficial slope rock mass and result in some geological hazards, like partial collapse and rockfalls, which will threaten the whole projects [12H. Xu, "Study on the dynamic stability of high rock slope induced by blasting vibration", Ph.D. thesis, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Heibei, China, 2006.]. Blasting stress waves can be divided into two categories according to the propagating paths: the stress waves propagating through the interior of media are known as body waves; the stress waves propagating across the surface are known as surface waves. Body waves can be divided into P-waves and S-waves.
According to the field conditions, blasting operations are always right below the toe of open-pit slopes. Blasting stress waves propagate through the interior of slopes to the surface and top of slopes. So only the influence of body waves (P-waves and S-waves) on the failure of slope rocks is studied.
Under blasting vibrations, particles within a certain range of the explosive source are disturbed and vibrations propagate from the explosive source in all directions. When blasting stress waves are incident at the free surface of slopes, reflection and refraction will be caused.
In stress wave theory, no transmission would be excited when a plane stress wave is incident on a free surface [13Achenbach J., Wave propagation in elastic solids., vol. 16, Elsevier: Holland, 2012.]. In this paper, we assumed that the blasting stress wave is a plane stress. In order to study the reflection of a blasting stress wave on a free surface, a coordinate system Ox_{1}x_{2} is set up, and the plane x_{1} = 0 is defined to be the free surface. The slope rock mass is located in the x_{1} > 0 region, and the x_{1} < 0 region represents the air. Suppose a blasting stress wave is a plane harmonic P-wave, and α_{1} is defined as the incident angle, as the frequency, as shown in Fig. (1). The displacement Φ_{1} orthogonal to the wave front is given as follows:
(1) |
Fig. (1) Reflection of P-waves at the free surface. |
where A_{1} is wave amplitude, , is the wave speed of P-waves.
u_{1} and v_{1} are the displacements in the directions of x_{1} and x_{2}, given by:
(2) |
Let α_{2} be the reflection angle of the reflected P-wave, its displacement orthogonal to the wave front is given by:
(3) |
where A_{2} is wave amplitude, , is a constant and means the phase change. u_{2} and v_{2} are given by:
(4) |
At the free surface (x_{1} = 0), the normal stress σ_{11} and the tangential stress σ_{12} both are zero. Let u and v be the total displacement made up from the incident and reflected P-waves. According to the Hooke’s law, the components of stress tensor are obtained as:
(5) |
where λ and μ are the Lame constants.
Substituting from (1) and (3), equation (5) becomes:
(6) |
For all (x_{2}, t), the two parts of equation (5) cannot be satisfied simultaneously. If the first part is satisfied, g_{1} = g_{2}, δ_{1} = 0 and A_{1}=−A_{2}. But the latter part cannot be satisfied. So there must be a reflected S-wave other than a reflected a P-wave to make the both parts of equation (5) satisfied.
Let β_{2} be the reflection angle of the reflected S-wave, its displacement orthogonal to the wave front is given by:
(7) |
where C_{s} is the wave speed of S-waves, A_{3} is wave amplitude, is a constant for phase change. Because the oscillations of an S-wave occur perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer and it is supposed that the movement only occurs in the same plane, the oscillations lie in the Ox_{1}x_{2} plane, known as a SV-wave. Its displacements are given by:
(8) |
Let u = u_{1} + u_{2} + u_{3} and v = v_{1} + v_{2} + v_{3}, the boundary condition of σ_{12} = 0 on x_{1} = 0 can be written as:
(9) |
If equation (3) is satisfied for all (x_{2}, t), there must be g_{1} = g_{2} = g_{3}, as follows:
(10) |
So,
(11) |
The reflection angle of reflected P-wave equals to the incident angle and the ratio of the sine of the reflection angle of reflected S-wave to the sine of the incident angle equals to the ratio of the S-wave’s speed to the P-wave’s speed. Because C_{p} > C_{s}, the reflection angle β_{2} greater than the incident angle α_{1}. The values of δ_{1} and δ_{2} can only be zero or π. Now let δ_{1} = δ_{2} = 0, the amplitudes satisfy:
(12) |
Similarly, let g_{1} = g_{2} = g_{3} and δ_{1} = δ_{2} = 0 in the boundary condition of σ_{11} = 0 at x_{1} = 0. Then the amplitudes satisfy:
(13) |
Equations (12) and (13) form a linear system of equations. For a given incident P-wave, the amplitudes of reflected waves A_{2} and A_{3} can be obtained as follows,
(14) |
where .
For normal incidence, it can be obtained that A_{3} = 0 and A_{1} = A_{2} from equations (12) and (13). In this case, the incident P-wave is reflected as a P-wave. The amplitude of the reflected P-wave is the same with the incident P-wave and its phase changes π. The incident compressive wave becomes a tensile wave.
Assume a S-wave incident on the free surface with an incident angle of , which propagates in the Ox_{1}x_{2} plane. Different from P-waves, the polarization of S-wave must be specified. Because an arbitrary displacement can be polarized to two components perpendicular to each other, the S-wave is polarized parallel to the Ox_{1}x_{2} plane known as SV-wave and perpendicular to the Ox_{1}x_{2} plane known as SH-wave.
For a SV-wave, the displacements u_{3} = 0 and u_{1} and u_{2} refer to x_{1}, x_{2} and t. So the problem is a plane motion problem. The solution method is similar as the case of the incident P-wave. The incident angle of SV-wave is , and the boundary conditions at x_{1} = 0 are σ_{11} = 0 and σ_{12} = 0, as shown in Fig. (2).
Fig. (2) Reflection of S-waves at the free surface. |
The boundary conditions can be satisfied only when both reflected P-waves and SV-waves are excited. The reflection angle of reflected SV-wave equals to the incident angle, i.e. = . The reflection angle of reflected P-wave is obtained from the equation . Obviously . The amplitude of incident SV-wave is B_{1}, the amplitude of reflected SV-wave is B_{2} and the amplitude of reflected P-wave is B_{3}.
Then the boundary conditions at x_{1}= 0 can be written as follows,
(15) |
For a given incident SV-wave, the amplitudes of reflected waves B_{2} and B_{3} can be obtained as follows,
(16) |
For SH-waves, whose propagating direction is perpendicular to the Ox_{1}x_{2} plane, no movement is caused in x_{1} and x_{2} directions, i.e. u_{1} = 0 and u_{2} = 0. When a SH-wave is incident on the free surface, it can be found form boundary conditions that only a reflected SH-wave is produced. The reflection angle equals to the incident angle. The reflected SH-wave has the same amplitude and the opposite phase with the incident SH-wave.
Based on stress wave theory, wave speed is closely related to the density, elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio [14J. Miklowitz, The theory of elastic waves and waveguides., Elsevier: Holland, 2012.], the wave speeds of P-waves and SV-waves are given by:
(17) |
where C_{p} is the wave speed of P-waves, C_{s} is the wave speed of S-waves, E_{d} is the dynamic modulus, ρ is density, ν is the Poisson’s ratio.
By analyzing the propagation of blasting stress wave in rock mass and the stress state of rock mass under blasting impacts, the formulas of dynamic stress at wave fronts are given by [15Y. Yu, Engineering blasting theory and technology., Metallurgy Industry Press: Beijing, 2004.]:
(18) |
where σ_{pi} is the normal stress induced by the incident P-wave, τ_{si} is the shear stress induced by the incident S-wave, V_{p} is the vibration velocity induced by the incident P-wave, V_{s} is the vibration velocity induced by the incident S-wave.
According to the ultimate tensile stress criterion, if the incident angle of stress waves (P-waves, S-waves) is θ, then:
(19) |
where [σ_{t}] is the ultimate tensile strength, σ_{Pr} is the tensile stress induced by reflected P-waves.
If a P-wave reflects on the free surface, θ = α_{1} according to the definition of incident angle in Chapter 2.1. By substituting equations (14), (17) and (18) to equation (19), the blasting vibration safety criteria of P-waves is given by:
(20) |
If a S-wave reflects on the free surface, θ = according to the definition of incident angle in Chapter 2.2. By substituting equations (16), (17) and (18) to equation (19), the blasting vibration safety criteria of P-waves is given by:
(21) |
Numerous studies and engineering practices prove that the failure characteristics of rock mass under static and dynamic loads are of a huge difference. Different rocks and different stress states result in different failure modes, but the main failure mode can be found. For hard brittle rocks (such as marble and diorite), shear failure or tensile failure dominates the failure modes, and the envelope is approximate a straight line [16Y. Li, X. Ge, C. Mi, and H. Zhang, "Failure criteria of rock-soil-concrete and estimation of their strength parameters", Chinese J. Rock Mec. Eng., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 770-776, 2004.]. But under blasting-vibration-induced dynamic loads, shear failure is rarely found in such rock materials, and tensile failure.
The strength of rock mass under blasting-vibration-induced dynamic loads will increase to some certain extent, the increasing of ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus is dependent to loading rate. The relation between static tensile strength and dynamic tensile strength is given by [17C. Zhang, "Analysis of vibration velocity maximum of the lining of existing tunnel by the blasting of the tunnel near-by", M.S. thesis, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 2009.]:
(22) |
where [σ_{t}]—dynamic tensile strength;
σ_{t0}—static tensile strength;
V_{H}—loading rate, V_{H} = σ_{H} /σ_{1};
σ_{H}—arbitrary loading speed(σ_{H} ≥1);
σ_{1}—loading speed, σ_{1}=0.1Mpa/s;
—increasing factor for tensile strength.
Similarly, the relation between static elastic modulus and dynamic elastic modulus is given by [18L. Jianhua, L. Zhang, and Y. Ronggui, "Mechanism of rock slope unstability and critical vibration velocity under action of blasting seism wave", Min. Metall., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 11-15, 2001.]:
(23) |
where E_{d}—dynamic elastic modulus;
E_{d0}—static elastic modulus;
—increasing factor for elastic modulus.
The loading speed of blasting seismic waves is up to 10^{6}MPa/s and in general, the sensitive loading speed of slopes and underground structures is 10~10^{3} MPa/s [17C. Zhang, "Analysis of vibration velocity maximum of the lining of existing tunnel by the blasting of the tunnel near-by", M.S. thesis, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 2009.]. So, when the σ_{H} is 10~10^{3} MPa/s, it can be calculated that from equations (22) and (23):
(24) |
The average values of the increasing factor for tensile strength and the increasing factor for elastic modulus are = 1.36, = 1.65 respectively.
Daye Iron Mine is located in Tieshan District, Huangshi City, Hubei Province, PR China, about 90km west to Wuhan City, 25km east to the downtown of Huangshi City, 15km southeast to Daye City, as shown in Fig. (3). A deep open pit has been formed throughout 100 years of mining activities, which is 2400m E-W and 1000m N-S. The east open pit of Daye Iron Mine was selected as the study area, as shown in Fig. (4). The north slope is 170m-270m above mean sea level (ASL), and the south slope is 86m-200m ASL. The overall slope angle varies from 38^{o} to 43^{o}, and some inter-ramp angles are up to 53^{o}. It is a precursory and typical open-pit to underground mine in China. Marble mainly distributes in the south slope and diorite mainly distributes in the north slope. In open-pit mining, the bench height is 12m and the bottom elevation is -48m ASL. In order to ensure the slope stability, the bottom has backfilled up to ±0 m ASL. In underground mining, sublevel caving method is adopted. The current mining operations are at -84m ASL, and the occurrence of ores is deep to -168m ASL.
Fig. (3) Location of Daye Iron Mine in Hubei Province, China. |
Fig. (4) Top view of east open pit in Daye Iron Mine. |
The static mechanical parameters of the rock mass in open-pit slopes of Daye Iron Mine are obtained by compression tests and tensile strength tests. The rock samples were processed into cylinder with diameter of 50mm and height of 100mm, and part of samples are showing in Fig. (5), and compression tests of rock sample are showing in Fig. (6). The details of laboratory tests of mechanical parameters of the rock samples are described in Zhang’s research [19Z. Zhang, "Study on the Influence Mechanism of Stability of Super High-steep Slope in Underground Mining by Caving Method", M.S. thesis, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2012.]. With equation (24) taken into consideration, the dynamic mechanical parameters are calculated, as listed in Table 1.
Fig. (5) Part of marble samples. |
Fig. (6) Photo of compression tests of rock sample. |
According to the field conditions, a section along the center of underground stope is selected and simplified to determine the range of incident angles when blasting stress waves propagate to slope surfaces, as shown in Fig. (7). Benches on south and north slopes are neglected. The overall slope angle of the north slope is 45° and the slope height is 245m; the overall slope angle of the south slope is 39° and the slope height is 128m. The current mining operations are at -84m ASL, and the occurrence of ores is deep to -168m ASL.
Fig. (7) Range of incident angles in the mine. |
It can be obtained from Fig. (7) that for north slopes, the range of incident angle is from 71° to 86° and for south slopes, the range of incident angle is from 51° to 82°.
In order to ensure the stability of mine slopes, the influence of underground mining blasting operations should be modified according to its importance and potential damage. Because the mine slopes in Daye iron mine are permanent, it will seriously threaten the workers and underground stopes once rockfalls, collapses and even landslides occur. So the modification factor of 1.7 is chosen according to the Specifications of Earthquake Resistant Design for Highway Engineering in China [20TB10003-2005, C.C.C.C.: Specification for railway tunnel design In., China Railway Press: Beijing, 2005.].
According to the parameters listed in Table 1, the blasting vibration safety criteria can be calculated from equations (20) and (21), as follows:
(25) |
According to the relevant research achievements, the frequency of incident stress waves has little influence on rock strength [21C. Ming, L. Wenbo, and W. Liang, "Safety threshold of blasting vibration velocity to high rock slope of Xiaowan hydropower station", Chinese J. Rock Mec. Eng., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 51-56, 2007.]. According to equation (25), in order to ensure the safety of the slope is absolute, the blasting vibration safety criteria for north slope and south slope can be proposed to 11.08cm/s and 10.20cm/s respectively.
According to the Safety Regulations for Blasting in China [22GB6722-2011, C.S.o.E.a.B.: Safety Regulations for Blasting. In. China Standard Press, Beijing, 2011.], the blasting vibration safety criteria for permanent rock slopes is 5cm/s to 15cm/s. The rock-strength-based blasting vibration safety criteria in this paper agree well with it, but are more accurate and rational. The criteria proposed in this paper will play a significant role in underground mining blasting operations and preventing from rockfalls.
The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
The study was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41372312 and No.51379194), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) (Grant No. CUGL140817), the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (Grant No. 2014CFB894) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M552113).
[1] | B.-H. Choi, C.-H. Ryu, D. Deb, Y.-B. Jung, and J.-H. Jeong, "Case study of establishing a safe blasting criterion for the pit slopes of an open-pit coal mine", Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., no. 57, pp. 1-10, 2013. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.07.014] |
[2] | T.B. Afeni, and S.K. Osasan, "Assessment of noise and ground vibration induced during blasting operations in an open pit mine: A case study on Ewekoro limestone quarry, Nigeria", Min. Sci. Technol. (China), vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 420-424, 2009. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1674-5264(09)60078-8] |
[3] | D. Deb, K. Kaushik, B. Choi, C. Ryu, Y. Jung, and C. Sunwoo, "Stability assessment of a pit slope under blast loading: a case study of Pasir coal mine", Geotech. Geol. Eng., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 419-429, 2011. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10706-010-9387-4] |
[4] | Y. Hu, W. Lu, M. Chen, P. Yan, and J. Yang, "Comparison of blast-induced damage between presplit and smooth blasting of high rock slope", Rock Mech. Rock Eng., vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1307-1320, 2014. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00603-013-0475-7] |
[5] | M. Saadat, M. Khandelwal, and M. Monjezi, "An ANN-based approach to predict blast-induced ground vibration of Gol-E-Gohar iron ore mine, Iran", J. Rock Mech. Geotech. Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 67-76, 2014. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2013.11.001] |
[6] | A. Kesimal, B. Ercikdi, and F. Cihangir, "Environmental impacts of blast-induced acceleration on slope instability at a limestone quarry", Environ. Geol., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 381-389, 2008. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0825-4] |
[7] | Y. Yu-jiang, L. Yan, and L. Jian-po, "Dynamic stability of open pit slope under blast loading", J. Northeastern Univ., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1472-1475, 2011. [Natural Science]. |
[8] | Y. Yan, Y. Zhang, and C. Huang, "Impact of blasting vibration on soil slope stability", Electron. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 19, pp. 6559-6568, 2014. |
[9] | Y. -q, YANG. J., YU, and D. -Y, "Study on simulation of discontinuous deformation analysis for slope stability under blast impact", Acta Armamentarii, vol. 74-78, no. S1, 2010. |
[10] | LI. N, Zhang. X, and Yu. C, "Research on dynamic response of prestressed anchorcables subjected to blasting load on slope", Chinese J. Rock Mech. Eng. vol. 26, suppl. 1, pp. 2593-2600, 2007. |
[11] | H.R. Azizabadi, H. Mansouri, and O. Fouché, "Coupling of two methods, waveform superposition and numerical, to model blast vibration effect on slope stability in jointed rock masses", Comput. Geotech., vol. 61, pp. 42-49, 2014. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2014.04.008] |
[12] | H. Xu, "Study on the dynamic stability of high rock slope induced by blasting vibration", Ph.D. thesis, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Heibei, China, 2006. |
[13] | Achenbach J., Wave propagation in elastic solids., vol. 16, Elsevier: Holland, 2012. |
[14] | J. Miklowitz, The theory of elastic waves and waveguides., Elsevier: Holland, 2012. |
[15] | Y. Yu, Engineering blasting theory and technology., Metallurgy Industry Press: Beijing, 2004. |
[16] | Y. Li, X. Ge, C. Mi, and H. Zhang, "Failure criteria of rock-soil-concrete and estimation of their strength parameters", Chinese J. Rock Mec. Eng., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 770-776, 2004. |
[17] | C. Zhang, "Analysis of vibration velocity maximum of the lining of existing tunnel by the blasting of the tunnel near-by", M.S. thesis, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 2009. |
[18] | L. Jianhua, L. Zhang, and Y. Ronggui, "Mechanism of rock slope unstability and critical vibration velocity under action of blasting seism wave", Min. Metall., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 11-15, 2001. |
[19] | Z. Zhang, "Study on the Influence Mechanism of Stability of Super High-steep Slope in Underground Mining by Caving Method", M.S. thesis, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2012. |
[20] | TB10003-2005, C.C.C.C.: Specification for railway tunnel design In., China Railway Press: Beijing, 2005. |
[21] | C. Ming, L. Wenbo, and W. Liang, "Safety threshold of blasting vibration velocity to high rock slope of Xiaowan hydropower station", Chinese J. Rock Mec. Eng., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 51-56, 2007. |
[22] | GB6722-2011, C.S.o.E.a.B.: Safety Regulations for Blasting. In. China Standard Press, Beijing, 2011. |