Wing wall 
Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
4% 

Conical slope 
Breakage 
44% 

Abutment 
Concrete scaling 
62% 

Vertical crack 
45% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
42% 

Water stains 
34% 

Pier 
Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
17% 
Fig. (7) 
Concrete scaling 
14% 

Vertical crack 
5% 

Bearing 
Part separation 
14% 

Breakage 
13% 

Shear deformation 
7% 

Bridge deck pavement 
Transverse crack 
41% 

Breakage 
16% 

Longitudinal crack 
10% 
Fig. (8) 
Slant crack 
9% 

Crocodile crack 
8% 

Transition slab at bridge head 
Vehicle bump at bridge head 
8% 

Expansion joints 
Breakage of anchorage zone 
50% 

Blockage 
36% 

Breakage of sealing strips 
29% 
Fig. (9) 
Guardrail 
Concrete scaling 
45% 
Fig. (10) 
Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
23% 

Crack 
14% 

Drainage 
Impeded 
16% 
Fig. (11) 
Major loadbearing elements (RCT) 
Longitudinal crack 
63% 

Slant crack 
63% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
37% 

Water stains 
26% 

Pitting surface 
26% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
16% 

Concrete scaling 
11% 

transverse crack 
5% 

Minor loadbearing elements (wet joint) 
Crack and water stains 
31% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
9% 

Pitting surface 
6% 

Minor loadbearing elements (diaphragm) 
Crack 
15% 

Water stains 
11% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
11% 

Pitting surface 
5% 

Major loadbearing elements (RC hollowcore slabs) 
Longitudinal crack 
42% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
41% 
Fig. (11) 
Transverse crack 
41% 

Water stains 
41% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
23% 

Concrete scaling 
7% 

Hinge joint 
Crack and water stains 
42% 

Major loadbearing elements (RC solid slabs) 
Corrosion of reinforcement 
74% 

Concrete scaling 
33% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
29% 

Transverse crack 
12% 

Water stains 
10% 

Longitudinal crack 
7% 

Major loadbearing elements (RC castinplace slabs) 
Water stains 
40% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
30% 

Longitudinal crack 
10% 

Transverse crack 
10% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
10% 

Concrete scaling 
10% 

Major loadbearing elements (PCT) 
Water stains 
63% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
57% 

Longitudinal crack 
55% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
27% 

Concrete scaling 
12% 

Transverse crack 
10% 

Major loadbearing elements (PC adjacent box beams) 
Longitudinal crack 
67% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
25% 

Water stains 
22% 

Transverse crack 
21% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
16% 

Major loadbearing elements (PC box girders) 
Longitudinal crack 
65% 

Water stains 
40% 

Concrete scaling and reinforcement exposing 
37% 

Corrosion of reinforcement 
14% 

Transverse crack 
11% 

Slant crack 
10% 
