Table 1: 16 sets of summary results of ground improvement studies using PVD.

No. Researchers Depth of Installation (m) Sand Mat Thickness (mm) Patterns
Installation
Installation
Distance
(m)
Mandrel Height of
Embankment
(m)
Speed of
Installation
(mm/s)
Type of
Soil
Field Data Back-Calculation s’=rs/rm
or
s= rs/rw*
κ= kh/ks
Shape
Dimension
(mm2)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1 Bergado et al. (1991) [6] 8.0 1,000 Square 1.2 Rectangular 45 x150,
150 x150
Soft Clay, Bangkok Analytical 2.0 kh= kv
2 Bergado et al. (1992) [7] 8.0 300 Triangle 1.5 Rectangular 150 x 45 4.00 - Soft Clay, Bangkok Analytical 2.5 * 10.0
3 Bergado et al. (2000) [8] 12.0 1,500 Square 1.0; 1.2; 1.5 Rectangular - 4.20 - Soft Clay, Bangkok Analytical 2.0 5.0
4 Saowapakpiboonet et al. (2010) [9] 10.0 - Triangle 0.85 Rectangular - - - Soft Clay, Bangkok Soft Clay, Bangkok Analytical
Analytical
2.0
2.0
7.2
6.6
(+v)
5 Hiep and Chung
(2018) [10]
30.0 – 35.0 500 - 800 Triangle 1.5 Rectangular 120 x 80 6.00 - 8.00 - Clay, Mekong Delta Analytical 2.0 2.0
6 Indraratna and Redana (2000) [11] 12.0
18.0
1,500
-
Square
Triangle
1; 1.2; 1.5
1.3
Rectangular
Rectangular
-
-
4.20
-
-
-
Soft Clay, Bangkok Muar Clay Deposit FEM
FEM
4-5 *
4-5 *
kh = kv
kh = kv
7 Chai and Miura
(1999) [12]
25.0 500 Square 1.5 Rectangular - 3.50 - Soft Clay, Ariake FEM 3.0 10.0
8 Chai et al. (1995) [13] 18.0 - Triangle 1.2 Rectangular - 4.70 - Muar Clay Deposit FEM 4.2 * 2.0
9 Chai et al. (1996) [14] 18.0
12.0
-
-
Triangle
Square
1.2
1.5
Rectangular
Rectangular
-
120 x 60
4.70
-
-
-
Muar Clay Deposit
Soft Clay, Bangkok
FEM
FEM
3.0
3.0
10.0
10.0
10 Chai et al. (2001) [15] 19.0 500 Triangle 1.5 Rectangular - - - Mucky Clay FEM 6.7 * 13.8
11 Indraratna et al.
(2008) [16]
12.0 - Triangle 1.5 Rectangular - 1.50 - Soft Clay, Swedish FEM 2.0 * 4.0
12 Pajouh et al. (2013) [17] 9.0 - Square 1.0 Rectangular - 3.00 - Soft Clay, Chittagong FEM 3.0 2.0
13 Pajouh et al.(2014) [18] 11.0
9.0
650
-
Triangle
Square
2.0
1.0
Rectangular
Rectangular
-
-
2.85
3.00
-
-
Silty Clay
Soft Clay, Chittagong
FEM
FEM
3.0
3.0
4.0
2.0
14 Pajouh et al.(2014) [19] 24.0
22.0
11.00
1,500
650
650
Square
Triangle
Triangle
1.0
1.35
2.0
Rectangular
Rectangular
Rectangular
-
-
-
8.50
5.00
2.80
-
-
-
Soft Clay, Ballina
Soft Soil
Silty Clay
FEM
FEM
FEM
4.0
5.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
4.0
15 Bo et al. (2003) [20] 50.0 Square 2.2, 5.3 Rectangular
Rhombus
120 x 60,
145 x 90
300 - 600
300 - 600
Marine Clay, Singapore Field and Laboratory Test 4.0-7.0 2.0-10.0
16 The Case study 17.0 600 Triangle 1.5 Rectangular 120 x 50 5.20 400 - 500 Soft Soil, North Sumatra Analytical 3.0 7.0

(+v) = with PVD + Vacuum Preloading.

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