Tabel 2: 17 sets of summary results of laboratory testing to determine smear zone characteristics.

 No.    

Researchers
 
Tank
Dimension
 
Basic Soil Properties 
 
Sample Preparation
 
 
Stress PVD
Dimension


(mm2)
Mandrel



(mm2
Speed of Installation


( mm/s)
Extent Ratio Permeability
Ratio

κ = kh/ks
(kPa)
s’=rs/rm or
s = rs/rw*
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1
 
Sharma and Xiao
(2000) [3]
3 zones
h=400 mm d=1000 mm h/d=0.40 Reconstituted Kaolinite
w=65%, LL=70%, PL=40%,
e =1.4, Gs=2.61
Kaolinite is mixed water up to w = 2 x LL, put into consolidation tank and be
vacuumed for stress at 90 kPa for several days.
Po = 100 ΔP = 1,102
 
 
SD
diam.= 50 mm
Circular
diam. =50 mm
5.0 4.0 *
 
 
1.3
 
2 Bergado et al.
(1991) [6]
2 zones
h=920 mm d=455 mm
h/d=2.02
Reconstituted Soft Bangkok Clay
γ=14.7 kN/m3, Cc=0.80,
Cs=0.13, e = 2.3
Samples are placed in cell consolidation layer by layer. Sand of 5 cm thick is given on the surface. Po = 10.2
ΔP = 47.8
40 x 6 60x60
Recta-
ngular
- 2.0 1.5 – 2.0
3
 
 
Saowapakpiboon et al. (2010) [9]
2 zones
h=500 mm d=305 mm
h/d=1.64
Reconstituted Soft Bangkok Clay w=113%, LL= 102%,PL=40%,
Gs=2.66, γ =14.7 kN/m3
The sample is taken into 3-4 m from
the ground surface and placed in the cell
consolidometer coating.
-
ΔP = 100
100 x 3.5
 
-
 
 
-
 
2.0
2.0 (+v)
 
2.7
2.5
 
4 Indraratna and Redana (1998) [21]
2 zones
h=950 mm d=450 mm h/d=2.11 Reconstituted Alluvial Clay, Sydnay w =40%, LL=70%, PL=30%, Gs=2.6, γ =17.0 kN/m Samples are mixed with water, placed in
a consolidometer cell and compacted
layer by layer. Surface is given sand 5 cm.
Po = 20
ΔP = 200
SD diam.= 46 mm Circular
diam. = 50 mm
- 4.0 - 5.0 kh/kv = 1.15
5 Indraratna and Rujikiatkamjorn
(2004) [22].
2 zones
h=950 mm d=450 mm
h/d=2.11
Reconstituted Alluvial Clay, Moruya w = 45%,LL= 42%, PL=17%, Gs=2.6, γ =17.0 kN/m3 Samples are mixed with water up to w
slightly larger than LL, placed in a coating,compacted using consolidometer cell.
Po=20
ΔP = 30+50
100 x 3 125 x 25
Recta-
ngular
- 3.0 *
3.0 *
(+v)
kh/kv=
1.17 - 1.20
6 Sathananthan and
Indraratna (2006) [23]
2 zones
h=1040 mm d=650 mm h/d=1.60 Reconstituted Alluvial Clay, Moruya w=45%, LL= 42 %, PL=17%, Gs=2.6, γ =17.0 kN/m3 Clay is mixed with water, kept on
container for several days, placed
in coating consolidometer cell
(150 mm/Layer), and compacted.
Po = 20
ΔP = 200
100 x 3 125 x 25 Recta- ngular 8.3 2.5 1.34
7 Feng and
Yin (2006) [24]
2 zones
h=450 mm d=300 mm h/d=1.50 Reconstituted Hongkong Marine Clay, w = 85,6 %, LL= 51.1 %, PL=26.1 %, Gs=2.58 Clay is mixed with water and stored in container for several days, placed in
coating consolidometer cells (150 mm/
layer) and compacted.
Po = 20
ΔP = 80
50 x 5 60 x 13 Recta- ngular - 2.0 2.0
8 Shin et al. (2009)
[25]
2 zones
h=1000 mm d=700 mm h/d=1.43 Reconstituted Busan Clay
w=56 %, LL= 46.4 %
PL= 24.1 %, Gs= 2.64
The test sample passed the sieve No.40.
is mixed with water up to w = 2 x LL.
The trapped air is removed by vacuum
during mixing.
Po = 50
ΔP = 200
85 x 6.4 100 x 50
Recta- ngular
20.0 4.0-4.2 (l)
3.3-3.4 (s)
-
-
9 Tran-Nguyen
and Edil (2011) [26]
2 zones
h=530 mm we= 350 mm
t = 130 mm
Reconstituted HRK, LL=49 %, PL=24 %, Gs=2.59 Sample with w equal to the
field is placed on the box,
placed in SZM instrument coating, and
compressed with vibrator.
Po = 25
i = 20-30
100 x 3.2 15 x 120
Recta- ngular
1.0-2.5 3.0 (HRK) 1.03

Reconstituted CID LL = 49 %,
PL=20-25 %,Gs= 2.71
4.2 (CID) 1.25
10 Ghandeharioon
et al. (2012) [27]
3 zones
h = 900 mm
d = 650 mm
h/d=1.38
Reconstituted Lucustrine
LL= 55 %, PL=27 %, e = 1.46
Sample is mixed with water until w = 1.1
x LL, placed in cell consolidometer
layer by layer, and compacted.
Po = 20
ΔP = 50
100 x 4 - - 2.65 kh/kv=
1.2 - 1.6
11 Chai et al.
et al.(2013) [28]
2 zones
h =700 mm
d = 450 mm
h/d =1.56
Reconstituted Soft Bangkok Clay
w=113%, LL=104%, PL = 45%,
Gs = 2.66, γ =14.7 kN/m3
Samples are placed in cell consolido-
meter layer by layer.
Po = 50
ΔP = 100
50 x 3.5 81.9 x18.2
Recta-
ngular
- 2.0 3.0
12 Rujikiatkamjorn
et al.(2014) [29]
3 zones
h = 561 mm
d = 345 mm
h/d =1.60
Undisturb Bulli Clay
w = 41%, LL= 50%, PL=25%,
Gs=2.62, γ=18.5 kN/m3
The soil around the sample is dug and
cut from base, wrapped to
prevent loss of w, stored in a humidity-
controlled room, and placed into cell
consolidometer.
Po = 20
ΔP = 200
we = 50 55 x 5
Recta-
ngular
- 3.7 1.33 - 2.85
13 Indraratna et al
(2015) [30]
2 zones
h =25,4 mm
d= 63,5 mm
h/d =0.40
Undisturb Ballina Clay
w=94,7% ,LL=98%, PL=32%,
Gs=2.58, e =2.44, γ=16.5 kN/m3
Samples for Oedometer testing
are collected from around the PVD
installed in the field. A series
oedometer testing is performed.
ΔP = 200 100 x 3 120 x 60
Recta-
ngular
- 6.3 2.7
14 Joseph et al.
(2015) [31]
2 zones
h = 600 mm
d= 600 mm
h/d=1.00
Reconstituted Cochin Marine Clay
w = 112%, LL = 156%,
PL = 34 %, Gs = 2.62
Sample is placed into the tank of
consolidometer, with w = LL layer by
layer.
Po = 5
ΔP = 120
SD
diam. = 46 mm
Circular
diam. = 50 mm
hammer
wi=2.6 kg
hi=30 cm
5.0 - 6.0 1.3 - 1.4
15 Pajouh et al.
(2015) [32]
2 zones
h =200 mm
d = 250 mm
h/d =0,80
Reconstituted Kaolinite, bentonite
w =120%, LL = 67-87%,
PL=27-34%, PI=40-43%
Samples are mixed with water to w= (1.4
-1.8) LL, placed into Rowe cell,
given stress cell =110 kPa,and back pressure =100 kPa for saturation.
Po = 20
ΔP = 200
SD
diam. = 22 mm
Circular diam. = 25 mm - 3.0 * 4.0
16 Sengul et al.
(2016) [33]
2 zones
h =530 mm
we= 350 mm
t = 130 mm
Reconstituted HRK,LL=51%,
PL=26%, IP=25%, Gs=2.60
Samples with w equal to the
field are placed on the box,
placed in SZM instrument coating,
and compressed with vibrator.
Po = 25
Δh = 50
130 x 18 120 x 15
Recta-
ngular
2-5
3.3 2.0
Reconstituted CID, LL=51%,
PL=30%, IP=21%, Gs=2.76
2.3 - 2.4 2.86 - 3.13
17 Choudhary et al.
(2016) [34]
2 zones
h =450 mm
d = 650 mm
h/d = 0.69
Reconstituted Balina Clay
w = 94%, LL= 98%,
PL=32%, Gs=2.6
Clay is taken 2 m below ground surface,
mixed with distilled water with w = 1.4 LL, placed into cell consolidometer, and given a light vibration.
Po =20
ΔP = 60
100 x 4 115 x 10
Recta-
ngular
- 2.5 1.3

h = height, r = radius, Po = pra-consolidatiion stress, (+v) = with PVD + vacuum preloading, Δh = hydraulic head, d, = diameter, HRK = Hydrite R Kaolinite, ΔP = consolidation stress, wi = weight of hammer, we, = width ,CID = Craney Island Dredgings, i = gradient hydraulic , SD = Sand Drain, t, = thickness ,SZM = Smear Zone Model, (l),(s) = mandrel long and short axis, hi = free fall height

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