Table 2: Predictors of Low High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) Among the Study Cohort Utilizing Step-Wise Back-Wise Multivariable Logistic Regression

Parameter Odds Ratio 95% CI P
Oman (n = 1,458) Ref Ref Ref
UAE (n = 1,369) 2.36 1.97-2.83 <0.001
Qatar (n = 392) 2.28 1.76-2.96 <0.001
Bahrain (n = 197) 1.45 1.02-2.04 0.036
Kuwait (n = 1,847) 3.38 2.84-4.03 <0.001
Yemen (n = 1,003) 0.90 0.74-1.08 0.254
Age 0.99 0.99-0.99 <0.001
Male 0.30 0.26-0.36 <0.001
Body mass index 1.02 1.01-1.04 <0.001
LDL-C 0.86 0.82-0.90 <0.001
Myocardial infarction 1.17 1.01-1.36 0.035
Diabetes mellitus 1.20 1.06-1.36 0.005
Triglycerides 0.95 0.92-0.98 0.001
Smoking 1.21 1.06-1.38 0.006
Renal impairment* 1.56 1.16-2.09 0.003

CI = Confidence interval; UAE = United Arab Emirates; LDL-C = Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Renal impairment* = serum creatinine >177 µmol/L (2 mg/dL); The variables that were dropped out of the multivariable logistic regression utilizing stepwise-backwise elimination method included family history of coronary artery disease, waist circumference, coronary artery bypass graft, myocardial infarction, statin use, fibrate/niacin use, ST-elevation myocardial infarction; percutaneous coronary intervention, Killip class score; prior aspirin use, diabetes mellitus and stroke. The logistic model is statistically significant (LR χ2(14) = 797; p<0.001). The Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic (a measure of the goodness-of-fit) was 10.3 and the p value was 0.244 denoting good model fit.

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