Table 4: Prevalence and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

Author Country N Low HDL-C Outcomes (Low HDL-C vs Satisfactory HDL-C)
Sachdeva et al. [25] USA 136,905 55%    n/a
Roe et al. [26] USA 93,263 53%    Significantly higher all-cause hospital mortality
   Significantly higher risk of multi-vessel coronary disease on angiography
Wolfram et al. [27] USA 1,032 53%    Significant higher in-hospital mortality
   Significant higher major adverse cardiac events
Pintó et al. [28] Spain 367 57%    n/a
Arai et al. [29] Japan 249 34%    Significantly higher incidence of target lesion revascularization
Al-Zakwani et al. [9] Oman 1,458 53%    Significant higher all-cause mortality (2.3 vs 0.6%; adjusted OR = 4.63; p=0.006)
Correia et al. [30] Brazil 97 28%    Significant higher incidence of events (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or recurrent unstable angina (33 vs 9%; OR = 3.6; p=0.05)
Al-Rasadi et al.
(present study)
Middle East 6,266 62%    Significant higher all-cause mortality (2.52 vs 2.36%; adjusted OR = 1.54; p=0.022)
   Significant higher rate of in-hospital cardiogenic shock (4.49 vs 3.61%; p=0.001)

n/a = Not available; OR = Odds ratio.

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