Table 1: SARS-CoV proteins in manipulating host inflammatory apoptosis.

SARS-CoV Protein Function References
AP3a Induce NF-κB pathway activation [27]
Upregulation of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines [14, 44]
Role in the cytokine storm [47]
Forms membrane ion channels [29, 45]
AP3b Blocks host cell cycle at the G0/G1 [48, 50]
Possibly induce necrosis [49]
AP6 Interferon antagonist [8, 60]
Induces apoptosis via a caspase 3 dependent mechanism [52-55]
AP7a Blocks host cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase [56]
Triggers apoptosis via interactions with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-XL [17, 43]
Activates the transcription factor NF-κB [57]
AP8 Induction of apoptosis via caspase 3 [58]
AP9 Transport in and out of the nucleus may upregulate apoptosis [41, 59, 61-63]