The Open Dentistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 12, 2018
REVIEW ARTICLE

Telescopic Denture



Mohammad Ayham Hakkoum*, Ghassan Wazir
Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic

Abstract

Aim:

This article explains the concept of telescopic denture.

Procedure:

It describes the different types of telescopic attachment (or double crown), and provides an overview of the advantages and the disadvantages of this type of prosthodontic treatment.

Conclusion:

The indications and the clinical applications of telescopic denture are discussed.

Keywords: Denture retention, Overlay denture, Overdenture, Denture design, Dental abutments, Crowns.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 246
Last Page: 254
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-12-246
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601812010246

Article History:

Received Date: 20/12/2017
Revision Received Date: 09/02/2018
Acceptance Date: 14/3/2018
Electronic publication date: 30/03/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Hakkoum and Wazir.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic; Tel: +963932071296; E-mail: drayham@yahoo.com




1. INTRODUCTION

Many types of retentive systems are used in removable partial dentures [1Carr AB, Brown DT. McCracken’s removable partial prosthodontics 13th ed. 13th ed.2015.-3Hakkoum MA. New clasp assembly for distal extension removable partial dentures: The reverse RPA clasp. J Prosthodont 2016; 25(5): 411-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12313] [PMID: 26102601] ]. Also, several types of attachments are used with overdentures [4Rutkunas V, Mizutani H, Takahashi H. Influence of attachment wear on retention of mandibular overdenture. J Oral Rehabil 2007; 34(1): 41-51.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2006.01640.x] [PMID: 17207077] , 5Carlsson GE. Implant and root supported overdentures: A literature review and some data on bone loss in edentulous jaws. J Adv Prosthodont 2014; 6(4): 245-52.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jap.2014.6.4.245] [PMID: 25177466] ].

One of those systems that may be used as retainers for partial dentures or as attachments for overdentures is the double crown system (or telescopic attachments). A telescope crown was patented in 1873 by Dr. J. B. Beers [6Reitz PV, Weiner MG, Levin B. An overdenture survey: Preliminary report. J Prosthet Dent 1977; 37(3): 246-58.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(77)90066-X] [PMID: 320311] ]. Telescoped bridgework was reported in The American System of Dentistry 1887 and F. A. Peeso published in 1894 his system of removable bridgework which was supported by telescope crowns [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 8Dhir RC. Clinical assessment of the overdenture therapy. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2005; 5: 187-92.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.21633] ]. Telescopic crowns are widely used in some European countries such as Germany and Sweden [9Hultén J, Tillström B, Nilner K. Long term clinical evaluation of conical crown retained dentures. Swed Dent J 1993; 17(6): 225-34.[PMID: 8134891] ], and in the East of Asia.

The term (telescopic denture) refers to the type of prosthesis that includes double crowns as retainers or attachments. These retainers (or attachments) consist of 2 crowns; primary or inner crown which is cemented to the abutment (Fig. 1), and secondary or outer crown which is attached to the denture (Fig. 2) [10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] -15Dabrowa T, Panek H, Napadlek P. 8-year clinical observation of telescopic anchors applied in removable dentures: Case report. Dent Med Probl 2007; 44: 521-5.].

The external surface of the outer crown may have the anatomic shape of the natural tooth [15Dabrowa T, Panek H, Napadlek P. 8-year clinical observation of telescopic anchors applied in removable dentures: Case report. Dent Med Probl 2007; 44: 521-5.], or it may be as a simple coping without anatomic landmarks [8Dhir RC. Clinical assessment of the overdenture therapy. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2005; 5: 187-92.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.21633] , 16Perel ML. Telescope dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1973; 29(21): 151-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(73)90107-8] [PMID: 4566531] ]. Retention is achieved by the fitting of the outer crown on the inner crown [14Stancić I, Jelenković A. Retention of telescopic denture in elderly patients with maximum partially edentulous arch. Gerodontology 2008; 25(3): 162-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-2358.2007.00204.x] [PMID: 18194328] , 17Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M, Toparli M. The evaluation of the removal forces on the conus crowned telescopic prostheses with the finite element analysis (FEA). J Oral Rehabil 2002; 29(11): 1069-75.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00953.x] [PMID: 12453261] -20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] ].

The purpose of this article was to give a clear idea of telescopic denture as an available choice of prosthodontic treatment.

Fig. (1)
Inner telescopic crowns.


Fig. (2)
Outer telescopic crowns attached into denture base.


2. TYPES OF TELESCOPIC ATTACHMENTS

Many types of telescopic attachments have been introduced to fulfill the specific requirements of clinical cases:

  • 1- Cylindrical crowns.
  • 2- Conical crowns.
  • 3- Resilient designs.
  • 4- Modified designs.

2.1. Cylindrical Crowns

This type is the original form of telescopic crowns which is characterized by the parallel-sided inner crowns (Fig. 3) [21Wöstmann B, Balkenhol M, Weber A, Ferger P, Rehmann P. Long-term analysis of telescopic crown retained removable partial dentures: survival and need for maintenance. J Dent 2007; 35(12): 939-45.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.09.010] [PMID: 17961902] ]. Retention results from the friction between the inner and the outer crowns [20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] , 22Prakash V, Parkash H, Gupta R. Fixed removable prosthesis employing Marburg double crown system. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2008; 8: 59-62.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.43258] ]. This design was developed by Haupl and Böttger as mentioned by Langer and Behr [13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] ].

Fig. (3)
Cylindrical telescopic crown: a- Prepared abutment, b- Inner crown, c- Outer crown.


Cylindrical design has the advantages of great retention [24Ohkawa S, Okane H, Nagasawa T, Tsuru H. Changes in retention of various telescope crown assemblies over long-term use. J Prosthet Dent 1990; 64(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(90)90170-H] [PMID: 2202814] ], and good esthetics in the marginal area [23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] ]. However, the fabrication of these crowns is very difficult because the perfect and accurate fit is required between the crowns [25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] ]. Moreover, as a result of the constant friction, the wear rate of the metal surfaces increases and a lever action occurs [20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] ].

Therefore, this type can be used only on abutments with sound supporting tissues when there is a need for much retention.

2.2. Conical Crowns

This type is a modification of the previous system and was developed by K. H. Körber as mentioned by Langer, Hulten, Shiba, and Behr [9Hultén J, Tillström B, Nilner K. Long term clinical evaluation of conical crown retained dentures. Swed Dent J 1993; 17(6): 225-34.[PMID: 8134891] , 11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] ].

The inner crown has a cone-like shape (Fig. 4) [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993.]. So, the axial surfaces of it are tapered occlusally in a specific angle called the convergence angle (or taper) [20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] ]. Retention is obtained by the wedging action. The smaller the convergence angle the greater the retention force will be [10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] , 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 22Prakash V, Parkash H, Gupta R. Fixed removable prosthesis employing Marburg double crown system. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2008; 8: 59-62.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.43258] ].

Fig. (4)
Conical telescopic crown: a- Prepared abutment, b- Inner crown, c- Outer crown.


A convergence angle of 6o is recommended. It results in a retention force of 5-10 N [23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] ]. Shiba mentioned that 4o-8o angle may be used according to the crown length and the physiologic movement of the abutment [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993.]. Some authors recommended 2o angle to maintain accepted retention [20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] , 24Ohkawa S, Okane H, Nagasawa T, Tsuru H. Changes in retention of various telescope crown assemblies over long-term use. J Prosthet Dent 1990; 64(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(90)90170-H] [PMID: 2202814] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] ].

The conical type is used more widely than the cylindrical design because it is less difficult in fabrication [25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] ], and less harmful to abutments and their supporting tissues [17Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M, Toparli M. The evaluation of the removal forces on the conus crowned telescopic prostheses with the finite element analysis (FEA). J Oral Rehabil 2002; 29(11): 1069-75.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00953.x] [PMID: 12453261] , 20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] ]. This design also has the advantage of determining the forces that would be applied to each abutment by selecting the convergence angle according to the clinical situation [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] ]. However, the conical design has the disadvantage of retention decrease after a period of use [20Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M. Parameters affecting retentive force of conus crowns. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(3): 271-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01036.x] [PMID: 15025661] , 24Ohkawa S, Okane H, Nagasawa T, Tsuru H. Changes in retention of various telescope crown assemblies over long-term use. J Prosthet Dent 1990; 64(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(90)90170-H] [PMID: 2202814] , 26Minagi S, Natsuaki N, Nishigawa G, Sato T. New telescopic crown design for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1999; 81(6): 684-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(99)70107-1] [PMID: 10347356] ].

2.3. Resilient Designs

They may be called the non-rigid designs, as they allow some freedom in the vertical and rotational movements between the inner and the outer crowns [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 27Taha A, Elgheriani W, Idris B. Rigid versus resilient telescopic retainers in distal extension removable partial overdentures. Cairo Dent J 2004; 20: 493-7.]. That may be achieved by some modifications in the inner crown, the outer crown, or both. These modifications result in reduction of the intimate contact and creation of a space between the inner and the outer crowns.

Marburg double crown is a well-known resilient design [28Wenz HJ, Lehmann KM. A telescopic crown concept for the restoration of the partially edentulous arch: The Marburg double crown system. Int J Prosthodont 1998; 11(6): 541-50.[PMID: 10023216] , 29Kazokoğlu FŞ, Akaltan F. Strain characteristics of Marburg double crown-retained implant overdentures compared with bar and ball-retained implant overdentures, with and without a rigid major connector. J Prosthet Dent 2014; 112(6): 1416-24.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2014.05.013] [PMID: 24969407] ]. It is based on the clearance fit system where only the cervical third of the inner crown is parallel to the outer crown providing a space between the crowns. This space allows a minor lateral movement between the crowns and prevents stress occurrence [22Prakash V, Parkash H, Gupta R. Fixed removable prosthesis employing Marburg double crown system. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2008; 8: 59-62.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.43258] , 28Wenz HJ, Lehmann KM. A telescopic crown concept for the restoration of the partially edentulous arch: The Marburg double crown system. Int J Prosthodont 1998; 11(6): 541-50.[PMID: 10023216] , 30Wenz HJ, Hertrampf K, Lehmann KM. Clinical longevity of removable partial dentures retained by telescopic crowns: Outcome of the double crown with clearance fit. Int J Prosthodont 2001; 14(3): 207-13.[PMID: 11484566] ].

In Hofmann and Ludwig design, the cervical half of the inner crown is parallel-sided while the occlusal half is conical with a space of 0.2-0.5 mm between the crowns in the occlusal region [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 27Taha A, Elgheriani W, Idris B. Rigid versus resilient telescopic retainers in distal extension removable partial overdentures. Cairo Dent J 2004; 20: 493-7.].

Yalisove introduced a conical design where the contact between crowns was limited to the 2 occlusal thirds, while there was a space of 0.003-0.010 inches between the crowns in the cervical third allowing the rotation of the outer crown and preventing the unfavorable friction [31Yalisove IL. Crown and sleeve-coping retainers for removable partial prosthesis. J Prosthet Dent 1966; 16(6): 1069-85.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(66)90173-9] [PMID: 5332090] ].

These designs provide resilient relation between the abutment and the denture, and according to their introducers and advocators they prevent the harmful effects, harmonize with tissues elasticity, result in better distribution of forces, and increase the survival rates of abutments. Resilient designs may be advantageous in the cases of a few remaining or weak abutments, and in distal extension situations. Studies showed that resilient design was successful when used in implant-supported dentures [32Krennmair G, Weinländer M, Krainhöfner M, Piehslinger E. Implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained with ball or telescopic crown attachments: A 3-year prospective study. Int J Prosthodont 2006; 19(2): 164-70.[PMID: 16602365] , 33Heckmann SM, Schrott A, Graef F, Wichmann MG, Weber HP. Mandibular two-implant telescopic overdentures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004; 15(5): 560-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2004.01064.x] [PMID: 15355398] ].

2.4. Modified Designs

Some systems were developed by considerable modifications in the double crown concept. They mostly depend on the merging of telescopic system with another type of attachment:

3. TELESCOPIC DENTURE ADVANTAGES

3.1. Good Retention and Stabilization

The great retentive force result from the fitting and extensive contact between the surfaces of the inner and the outer crowns [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 8Dhir RC. Clinical assessment of the overdenture therapy. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2005; 5: 187-92.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.21633] , 12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 39Isaacson GO. Telescope crown retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1969; 22(4): 436-48.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(69)90211-X] [PMID: 4897479] -41Li YM, Gao P, Yin K. Clinical effects of occlusal reconstruction on telescopic dentures. Tianjin Yi Yao 2007; 35: 834-6.].

3.2. Secondary Splinting Action

This is due to the accurate relation between the inner and the outer crowns, as they are rigidly connected to the denture base [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] , 11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] ].

3.3. Transferring Occlusal Forces through the Long Axes of Abutments

As the telescopic crowns surrounding abutments completely, so the occlusal forces are transmitted to abutments through their long axes [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 39Isaacson GO. Telescope crown retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1969; 22(4): 436-48.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(69)90211-X] [PMID: 4897479] ].

3.4. Creation of a Common Path of Insertion

That can be easily provided by the parallelism of inner crowns even if the abutments are tilted [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] , 42Weaver JD. Telescopic copings in restorative dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 1989; 61(4): 429-33.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(89)90008-5] [PMID: 2657005] ].

3.5. Hygienic Advantages

The telescopic attachment provides accessibility to the gingival tissues of the abutment allowing effective home care and good oral hygiene. Moreover, the good fitting of the inner crown on the abutment protects it from caries and thermal irritation [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] ].

3.6. Esthetic Advantages

Using double crowns as retentive elements allows better esthetics than clasps [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 39Isaacson GO. Telescope crown retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1969; 22(4): 436-48.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(69)90211-X] [PMID: 4897479] ]. Good esthetics can be provided by using ceramic faces and a suitable color selection.

3.7. Patient Satisfaction

Many authors reported good patient satisfaction rates with telescopic dentures [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 8Dhir RC. Clinical assessment of the overdenture therapy. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2005; 5: 187-92.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.21633] , 10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] , 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] , 41Li YM, Gao P, Yin K. Clinical effects of occlusal reconstruction on telescopic dentures. Tianjin Yi Yao 2007; 35: 834-6.-44Molin M, Bergman B, Ericson A. A clinical evaluation of conical crown retained dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1993; 70(3): 251-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(93)90060-2] [PMID: 8410733] ].

3.8. Repair and Adjustment Ability

Telescopic dentures can be easily repaired even when an abutment is lost [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] , 45Stern N, Zalkind M. Repairing a crown-sleeve coping prosthesis. Part II. J Prosthet Dent 1984; 51(3): 366-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(84)90223-3] [PMID: 6368806] ].

4. TELESCOPIC DENTURE DISADVANTAGES

4.1. Complicated Procedures

Telescopic dentures fabrication requires very complicated clinical and laboratory procedures. That results in a long treatment period and increased cost [13Langer A. Telescope retainers and their clinical application. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 44(5): 516-22.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(80)90070-0] [PMID: 7003109] , 42Weaver JD. Telescopic copings in restorative dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 1989; 61(4): 429-33.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(89)90008-5] [PMID: 2657005] , 46Yi YJ, Cho LR, Park CJ. Cause of technical failures of conical crown-retained denture (CCRD): A clinical report. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 2003; 41: 714-9.].

4.2. Retention Related Problems

It may be difficult to achieve the exact retention required between the 2 crowns. Moreover, the denture retention may be evaluated only after cementation of the crowns [14Stancić I, Jelenković A. Retention of telescopic denture in elderly patients with maximum partially edentulous arch. Gerodontology 2008; 25(3): 162-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-2358.2007.00204.x] [PMID: 18194328] , 46Yi YJ, Cho LR, Park CJ. Cause of technical failures of conical crown-retained denture (CCRD): A clinical report. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 2003; 41: 714-9.].

Also, the retentive force between the crowns decreases after a period of use. That results from the repeated insertion and removal of the denture and the wear of crowns metal [24Ohkawa S, Okane H, Nagasawa T, Tsuru H. Changes in retention of various telescope crown assemblies over long-term use. J Prosthet Dent 1990; 64(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(90)90170-H] [PMID: 2202814] , 26Minagi S, Natsuaki N, Nishigawa G, Sato T. New telescopic crown design for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1999; 81(6): 684-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(99)70107-1] [PMID: 10347356] , 47Bayer S, Al-Mansour R, Grüner M, Enkling N, Stark H, Mues S. In-vitro wear simulation of retentive elements for telescopic crowns. ZWR 2008; 117: 412-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1093315] , 48Akagawa Y, Seo T, Ohkawa S, Tsuru H. A new telescopic crown system using a soldered horizontal pin for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1993; 69(2): 228-31.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(93)90145-E] [PMID: 8094099] ].

4.3. Cervical Caries

The failure in providing the accurate fit of the crowns or the poor oral hygiene may lead to the occurrence of cervical caries [9Hultén J, Tillström B, Nilner K. Long term clinical evaluation of conical crown retained dentures. Swed Dent J 1993; 17(6): 225-34.[PMID: 8134891] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] ].

4.4. Esthetic Problems

Esthetic problems and difficulties may arise such as the show of crowns metal, or the overcontouring of the crowns [11Shiba A. The conical double-crown telescopic removable periodontic prosthesis 1993., 42Weaver JD. Telescopic copings in restorative dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 1989; 61(4): 429-33.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(89)90008-5] [PMID: 2657005] , 46Yi YJ, Cho LR, Park CJ. Cause of technical failures of conical crown-retained denture (CCRD): A clinical report. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 2003; 41: 714-9.].

4.5. Technical Failures

Technical failure is one of the primary problems associated with telescopic denture. Many studies reported high rates of technical failures in this type of prostheses [21Wöstmann B, Balkenhol M, Weber A, Ferger P, Rehmann P. Long-term analysis of telescopic crown retained removable partial dentures: survival and need for maintenance. J Dent 2007; 35(12): 939-45.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.09.010] [PMID: 17961902] , 23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 43Bergman B, Ericson A, Molin M. Long-term clinical results after treatment with conical crown-retained dentures. Int J Prosthodont 1996; 9(6): 533-8.[PMID: 9171491] , 46Yi YJ, Cho LR, Park CJ. Cause of technical failures of conical crown-retained denture (CCRD): A clinical report. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 2003; 41: 714-9., 49Hofmann E, Behr M, Handel G. Frequency and costs of technical failures of clasp- and double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2002; 6(2): 104-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-002-0160-9] [PMID: 12166709] ].

Technical failures may be loss of cementation, loss of facings, or fracture of artificial teeth, the metal framework, or the denture base [23Behr M, Hofmann E, Rosentritt M, Lang R, Handel G. Technical failure rates of double crown-retained removable partial dentures. Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2): 87-90.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007840050121] [PMID: 11218506] ].

4.6. Critical Need for Follow-up

Follow-up, periodic evaluation and maintenance are necessary to overcome the problems related to technical failures, cervical caries, and retention [21Wöstmann B, Balkenhol M, Weber A, Ferger P, Rehmann P. Long-term analysis of telescopic crown retained removable partial dentures: survival and need for maintenance. J Dent 2007; 35(12): 939-45.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.09.010] [PMID: 17961902] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 50Behr M, Kolbeck C, Lang R, Hahnel S, Dirschl L, Handel G. Clinical performance of cements as luting agents for telescopic double crown-retained removable partial and complete overdentures. Int J Prosthodont 2009; 22(5): 479-87.[PMID: 20095198] ].

5. INDICATIONS OF TELESCOPIC DENTURES

  • 1- Few remaining or unfavorably distributed abutment teeth [15Dabrowa T, Panek H, Napadlek P. 8-year clinical observation of telescopic anchors applied in removable dentures: Case report. Dent Med Probl 2007; 44: 521-5., 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] , 44Molin M, Bergman B, Ericson A. A clinical evaluation of conical crown retained dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1993; 70(3): 251-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(93)90060-2] [PMID: 8410733] , 51Ericson A, Nilsson B, Bergman B. Clinical results in patients provided with conical crown retained dentures. Int J Prosthodont 1990; 3(6): 513-21.[PMID: 2083019] ].
  • 2- When the abutment teeth need to be covered by crowns because of extensive caries or poor contour [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 39Isaacson GO. Telescope crown retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1969; 22(4): 436-48.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(69)90211-X] [PMID: 4897479] ].
  • 3- Abutment teeth with guarded prognosis [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 25Widbom T, Löfquist L, Widbom C, Söderfeldt B, Kronström M. Tooth-supported telescopic crown-retained dentures: An up to 9-year retrospective clinical follow-up study. Int J Prosthodont 2004; 17(1): 29-34.[PMID: 15008229] , 46Yi YJ, Cho LR, Park CJ. Cause of technical failures of conical crown-retained denture (CCRD): A clinical report. J Korean Acad Prosthodont 2003; 41: 714-9.].
  • 4- Advanced periodontitis cases [10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] , 52Fernandes V, Chitre V, Aras M. Prosthetic management of a case of advanced periodontitis with telescopic dentures. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2008; 8: 216-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.49186] , 53Hou GL, Tsai CC, Weisgold AS. Periodontal and prosthetic therapy in severely advanced periodontitis by the use of the crown sleeve coping telescope denture. A longitudinal case report. Aust Dent J 1997; 42(3): 169-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.1997.tb00116.x] [PMID: 9241927] ].
  • 5- When it is difficult to find a suitable path of insertion as in the case of unparallel abutment teeth [17Güngör MA, Artunç C, Sonugelen M, Toparli M. The evaluation of the removal forces on the conus crowned telescopic prostheses with the finite element analysis (FEA). J Oral Rehabil 2002; 29(11): 1069-75.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00953.x] [PMID: 12453261] , 37Langer A. Tooth-supported telescope restorations. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(5): 515-20.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90037-8] [PMID: 7012319] , 42Weaver JD. Telescopic copings in restorative dentistry. J Prosthet Dent 1989; 61(4): 429-33.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(89)90008-5] [PMID: 2657005] ].
  • 6- Oral cancer patients [54Weischer T, Mohr C. Implant-supported mandibular telescopic prostheses in oral cancer patients: An up to 9-year retrospective study. Int J Prosthodont 2001; 14(4): 329-34.[PMID: 11508087] , 55Weischer T, Schettler D, Mohr C. Implant-supported telescopic restorations in maxillofacial prosthetics. Int J Prosthodont 1997; 10(3): 287-92.[PMID: 9484062] ].
  • 7- Connecting natural teeth to implants [56Kaufmann R, Friedli M, Hug S, Mericske-Stern R. Removable dentures with implant support in strategic positions followed for up to 8 years. Int J Prosthodont 2009; 22(3): 233-41.[PMID: 19548404] ].
  • 8- Occlusal reconstruction cases [41Li YM, Gao P, Yin K. Clinical effects of occlusal reconstruction on telescopic dentures. Tianjin Yi Yao 2007; 35: 834-6.].
  • 9- Patients with poor manual dexterity [22Prakash V, Parkash H, Gupta R. Fixed removable prosthesis employing Marburg double crown system. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2008; 8: 59-62.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.43258] , 33Heckmann SM, Schrott A, Graef F, Wichmann MG, Weber HP. Mandibular two-implant telescopic overdentures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004; 15(5): 560-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2004.01064.x] [PMID: 15355398] , 54Weischer T, Mohr C. Implant-supported mandibular telescopic prostheses in oral cancer patients: An up to 9-year retrospective study. Int J Prosthodont 2001; 14(4): 329-34.[PMID: 11508087] ].

6. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

Telescopic prostheses are widely used in clinical situations. They are not limited to a single type or design as there are several possibilities and patterns of the double crown and the telescopic denture [10Langer Y, Langer A. Tooth-supported telescopic prostheses in compromised dentitions: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84(2): 129-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpr.2000.108026] [PMID: 10946327] ].

Telescopic crowns can be used as retainers for partial dentures instead of clasps and precision attachments. In this case, the prosthesis is called (telescopic partial denture) which is usually fabricated with metal framework [12Langer A. Telescope retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 45(1): 37-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(81)90009-3] [PMID: 7007624] , 39Isaacson GO. Telescope crown retainers for removable partial dentures. J Prosthet Dent 1969; 22(4): 436-48.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(69)90211-X] [PMID: 4897479] ].

Also, telescopic crowns are indicated as attachments for overdentures. Then the prosthesis is called (the telescopic overdenture) which is indicated generally where there are a few remaining teeth. These overdentures may be fabricated with acrylic base [7Schweitzer JM, Schweitzer RD, Schweitzer J. The telescoped complete denture: A research report at the clinical level. J Prosthet Dent 1971; 26(4): 357-72.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3913(71)90167-3] [PMID: 4936889] , 8Dhir RC. Clinical assessment of the overdenture therapy. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2005; 5: 187-92.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4052.21633] ].

In addition to using them with natural teeth, telescopic dentures may be supported by implants [32Krennmair G, Weinländer M, Krainhöfner M, Piehslinger E. Implant-supported mandibular overdentures retained with ball or telescopic crown attachments: A 3-year prospective study. Int J Prosthodont 2006; 19(2): 164-70.[PMID: 16602365] , 33Heckmann SM, Schrott A, Graef F, Wichmann MG, Weber HP. Mandibular two-implant telescopic overdentures. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004; 15(5): 560-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0501.2004.01064.x] [PMID: 15355398] ].

Moreover, telescopic dentures may be a good choice to connect implants to natural teeth [57Chee W, Jivraj S. Connecting implants to teeth. Br Dent J 2006; 201(10): 629-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4814260] [PMID: 17128232] ].

7. STUDIES ON TELESCOPIC DENTURE

Many studies were done to investigate telescopic dentures. A large number of these studies evaluated the retentive force associated with this type of prostheses. That is expected as telescopic crowns are basically retentive elements.

Arnold et al. [58Arnold C, Hey J, Setz JM, Boeckler AF, Schweyen R. Retention force of removable partial dentures with different double crowns. Clin Oral Investig. 2017. [Epub ahead of print][http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2224-x] ] compared the retentive forces of different designs of double crowns. They found that telescopic crowns with additional retention elements had the highest retention forces. Çelik Güven et al. [59Çelik Güven M, Tuna M, Bozdağ E, Öztürk GN, Bayraktar G. Comparison of retention forces with various fabrication methods and materials in double crowns. J Adv Prosthodont 2017; 9(4): 308-14.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jap.2017.9.4.308] [PMID: 28874999] ] analyzed the retention forces of double crowns with various fabrication methods and materials. They observed the best results when zirconia primary crown and electroformed secondary crown were used. Nakagawa et al. [60Nakagawa S, Torii K, Tanaka M. Effects of taper and space settings of telescopic Ce-TZP/A crowns on retentive force and settling. Dent Mater J 2017; 36(2): 230-5.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2016-258] [PMID: 28228628] ] investigated the effect of telescopic crowns taper on the retentive force and found that the retentive force decreased when the taper increased. Wagner et al. [61Wagner C, Stock V, Merk S, et al. Retention load of telescopic crowns with different taper angles between cobalt-chromium and polyetheretherketone made with three different manufacturing processes examined by pull-off test. J Prosthodont [journal on the Internet]. 2016 Apr 1 [cited 2018 Feb 9]. doi: 10.1111/jopr.12482. [Epub ahead of print].] evaluated the retention load of telescopic crowns. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns on cobalt-chromium primary crowns were used in their study. They concluded that telescopic crowns made of PEEK had stable retention load.

Several studies evaluated the electroplated telescopic retainers with zirconia primary crowns. Schwindling et al. [62Schwindling FS, Lehmann F, Terebesi S, et al. Electroplated telescopic retainers with zirconia primary crowns: 3-year results from a randomized clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig 2017; 21(9): 2653-60.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2067-5] [PMID: 28190152] ] investigated the clinical outcomes of this type of telescopic denture and found favorable survival rate and good outcomes. Also, Schwindling et al. [63Schwindling FS, Deisenhofer UK, Séché AC, Lehmann F, Rammelsberg P, Stober T. Randomized trial investigating zirconia electroplated telescopic retainers: Quality of life outcomes. Clin Oral Investig 2017; 21(4): 1157-63.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-1869-1] [PMID: 27277518] ] evaluated the effect of this type of telescopic denture on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). They found that OHRQoL was improved.

The effect of telescopic dentures on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) was evaluated in other studies such as Elsyad and Mostafa study [64Elsyad MA, Mostafa AZ. Effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force: A preliminary cross over study. J Esthet Restor Dent 2017. [Epub ahead of print][http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12325] ]. They found that mandibular telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures were associated with improved oral health related quality of life.

Some studies investigated the use of telescopic crown attachments in implant-supported dentures. Yunus et al. [65Yunus N, Saub R, Taiyeb Ali TB, Salleh NM, Baig MR. Patient-based and clinical outcomes of implant telescopic attachment-retained mandibular overdentures: A 1-year longitudinal prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2014; 29(5): 1149-56.[http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.3328] [PMID: 25216142] ] results showed that mandibular implant-supported overdentures retained with telescopic attachments improved OHRQoL, patient satisfaction, and masticatory performance. Also, peri-implant soft tissue response and implant stability were favorable.

8. DISCUSSION

The telescopic denture is a unique type of prosthodontic treatment. Several designs of double crowns were developed. The selection of the design depends on the clinical situations and the dentist preference about using rigid or resilient type.

Telescopic dentures have many advantages. However, They are associated with some disadvantages. Therefore, dentists should be careful during treatment planning and the following stages. They must thoroughly evaluate the expected advantages and disadvantages keeping in mind the higher cost and the long time needed for the fabrication of telescopic denture. When planning to provide a patient with a telescopic denture the dentist should inform the patient about the long period required for treatment and should give a clear explanation about the denture that would be delivered to the patient. All clinical and laboratory steps should be accurate. Sufficient reduction of tooth structure is necessary. Otherwise, over contouring is inevitable. Dental technician plays an important role in success or failure of telescopic denture. Only skilled well equipped technician can fabricate successful telescopic dentures.

Several materials (and combinations of materials) were used for making telescopic crowns such as precious and non-precious metal alloys, zirconia, and PEEK. Further long-term studies are needed to evaluate the success of these materials and to develop new materials and designs of telescopic crowns.

CONCLUSION

Telescopic denture should be kept in mind during treatment planning of cases requiring prosthodontic rehabilitation. It has many advantages and some disadvantages which must be evaluated carefully according to the clinical situation. The availability of various types of these dentures allows their use in a wide range of cases; especially those with a few remaining teeth or with specific complications. Further long-term research is still needed.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

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