Table 1: Overview of histological analyses derived From prospective studies on ARP

Author Study Design
Number of Cases
Time of Examination Sex Age History of Perio Smoking Jaw: Max./
Mand./ Both
Location: Inc/PM/M Reason for Extraction Socket Classification
Barone et al. (2008) RCT / 40 7–9 months 16 male,
24 female
26–69 y Not described Heavy smokers
(> 10 cig/d) excluded
both Inc/PM Not described Only alveoli with 4 intact walls
Barone et al. (2017) RCT / 90 3 months 36 male,
54 female
25–70 y, mean 47.4 y Not described Heavy smokers (> 10 cig/d) excluded both PM/M Decay, endodontic failure, fracture Y, according to Juodzbalys (2008)
et al. (2012)
RCT / 48 4 months 24 male,
17 female
24–71 Y, mean 47.2 y Acute perio excluded Heavy smokers (> 10 cig/d) excluded both PM/M root frac­ture, perio­dontal in­volvement, endodontic treatment failure. decay three intact walls and at least 80% of the fourth wall intact
Casado et al. (2010) CT / 15.
no histology in the control group
4 months No data No data Not described Not described both Inc/PM/M Not described Intact alveoli only
De Coster
et al. (2011)
CT / 10 (23 sockets) 6–74 weeks 8 male,
2 female
41-81 y Not described Smokers and non-smokers both Inc/PM/M Caries, perio, fracture Intact buccal bone
Crespi et al. (2009) RCT / 45 3 months 8 male,
7 female
28–-71 y, mean 51.3 y Excluded Non-smokers both PM/M Not described 3-walled, loss of the buccal bone wall
Nahles et al. (2013) RCT / 33 25 sites: 4 weeks,
40 sites: 12 weeks
18 male,
15 female
30–73 y, mean 54.5 y Acute PAR and with PPD > 5 mm excluded Non-smokers both Inc/PM/M Not described 4 walls
et al. (2010)
CT / 13 6 months 7 male,
6 female
28–70 y,
mean 47.5 y
Not described Non-smokers OK Inc Not described Not described
Barone et al. (2008) Y AB (4 days); CHX rinse (3 weeks) Xenogeneic Corticocancellous porcine bone MP3; OsteoBiol, Coazze, Italy Test group: Y; control group: N Evolution collagen membrane; OsteoBiol, Coazze, Italy Yes, more trabecular bone and less connective tissue in the test group
Barone et al. (2017) N AB (5 days), CHX rinse (3 weeks) Xenogeneic Test 1: collagenated cortico-cancellous porcine bone; test 2: cortical porcine bone Test 1: MP3;OsteoBiol, Coazze, Italy,
Test 2: Apatos; OsteoBiol, Coazze, Italy
Test group: Y; control group: N Evolution collagen membrane; OsteoBiol, Coazze, Italy Yes, greater mineralization in the cortical-bone test group
Cardaropoli et al. (2012) N AB (6 days); + CHX rinse (duration not stated) Xenoeneic Bovine bone mineral Bio-Oss Collagen Y Only test group with porcine collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) Yes, more new bone in test group
De Coster
et al. (2011)
Y Not described Alloplastic 60% hydroxyapatite,
40% β-tricalcium phosphate
BoneCeramic (Straumann AG) Y Primary wound closure, no membrane Not reported
Crespi et al. (2009) N Single shot of Amoxicillin 1 g, 1 h pre-op Alloplastic 15 magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MHA), 15 calcium sulfate (CS) MHA: SINTlife; Finceramica, Faenza, Italy; CS: Easy Set; Sweden-Matina, Due Carrare, Italy Y Y, with collagen membrane Yes, with vital bone and connective tissue
Nahles et al. (2013) N Not described Xenogeneic Bovine granules and porcine collagen Bio-Oss Collagen N N No significant differences at the histomorphometric level
et al. (2010)
Y Not described Autologous Iliac crest bone marrow N/A Y Sutured after periosteal slit No, no significant differences