Table 2: Contents of the health guidance program.

Nutrition and meal intake Meals regularly taken three times a day and finished before getting full
Types of carbohydrates and blood glucose level monitored
Staple foods replaced with low GI carbohydrates(like whole grain bread or millet)
Types and intake frequency of lipids monitored
Difference between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids discussed
Trans-fatty acids avoided
Recommendations given for intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Intake of meat, fish, and vegetables increased after recovery of masticatory function
Vegetables discussed as a source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber
Discussion regarding failure of calorie restriction diets without considering nutrition
Target basal metabolic rate calculated from thebasal metabolism standard value for each age and sex
Understanding of basal metabolism and exercise guidance Target amount of exercise suitable for the subjects set basedon the criterion of physical activity for those over 65 years of age(10 METs*-hours/week, regardless of exercise intensity) [23]
Physical activities planned according to each subject’s lifestyle (combiningaerobic exercise and anoxic exercise, sports, and daily activities)
Influence on the body of lack of physical activities discussed
Relationship between muscle mass, basal metabolism, and anti-aging effects discussed
Diet therapy of charting daily weight ** [24] 1) Body weight measured twice, in the morning and at night
2) Subject filled in measured weight on a 100 g scale chart and drew a line graph
3) When the graph increased or decreased, they wrote the reason in the comment field
4) The target weight change was 50 to 100 g per day
Understanding on sleep Sleep and stress control, circadian rhythm, etc. discussed
Smoking and drinking None of the subjects smoked
Low-carb alcoholic beverages were recommended

*METs: Metabolic Equivalents (an indicator of exercise intensity)
**Diet therapy of charting daily weight: This is a cognitive behavioral therapy characterized by measuring the weight in the morning and at night in 100 g units, using minute changes to motivate for action. Body weight is the lowest in the morning due to fasting and perspiration during the night and higher energy metabolism and excretion upon getting up. Conversely, the weight at night is the highest because of the food and drinks ingested. Therefore, body weight was measured twice: in the morning (after getting up and excreting) and at night (after dinner and before going to bed).

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