Table 1: Summary of the descriptive characteristics of the included studies.

Authors n Groups Sample Material Bacteria Intervention Main Conclusion
Shrestha et al., (2012) Not reported 6 Craniofacial implants S. aureus
E. coli
C. albicans
K. pneumonia
C.parapsilosis
The use of grape seed extract for antimicrobial effects Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects only with S. aureus. Minimal or no reactivity against strains of other groups was detected.
Sahrmann et al., (2012) 10 3 Titanium discs S. oralis
S. anginosus
A. oris
F. nucleatum
V. dispar
C. rectus
P. intermedia
P. gingivalis
Treatment in an electrolytical setup with physiological saline and gelatin. Electrolysis could be an effective means to disinfect implant surfaces.
Bürgers et al., (2012) 5 7 Plan titan specimens S. sanguinis
S. epidermidis
C. albicans
Applying six different topical antiseptics on the surface of specimens. Sodium hypochlorite was found to be effective against all the selected specimens.
Leja et al., (2012) 4 4 Dental implants Not reported Irradiation with diode, carbon dioxide, and Er:YAG lasers Pulsed mode diode laser was recommended for preventing surface temperature.
Astasov-Frauenhoffer et al.,(2013) Not reported 3 Titanium discs S. sanguinis
F. nucleatum
P. gingivalis
Adjuvant antibiotic therapy of amoxicillin, metronidazole and their combination. The combination of antibiotics was found more efficient than metronidazole alone on oral biofilms.
Roberts et al (2013) Not reported 3 Titanium discs
PMMA discs
S. mutans
P.gingivalis
Applying oligosaccharide nanomedicine (OligoG) on Ti and PMMA surfaces. The combination of OligoG and triclosan showed enhanced antimicrobial effect on oral biofilm.
Sahrmann et al., (2013) 20 3 Dental implants Not reported Applying curette, ultrasonic device and air powder abrasive for implant surface decontamination. Airflow devices was shown to
provide an efficient therapeutic effect for the debridement of implants in peri-implantitis defects.
Toma et al., (2015) 10 4 Titanium discs Not reported Treatment with plastic curette, air-abrasive device, titanium brush, and implantoplasty. All groups appeared to be valid in terms of biocompatibility.
Widodo et al., (2016) 19 6 Titanium discs S. aureus Disinfection treatment with the use of six different modalities. Combination of photodynamic therapy and Titanium brush modality was effective in reducing the number of selected bacteria.
Giannelli et al., (2016) 9 3 Titanium discs S. aureus
E. coli
Irradiation with diode laser of implant surfaces both pulsed and continuous modes. The λ 808-nm diode laser appeared to be an efficient way for decontamination of titanium implant surfaces.
Valente et al., (2017) 22 6 Dental implants S. sanguinis Irradiation with two different diode lasers with/without the aid of photodynamic therapy. Diode lasers were shown to be useful regardless of the aid of photodynamic therapy.
Rismanchian et al., (2017) 5 18 Titanium discs S. aureus
S. epidermidis
C. albicans
Disinfection treatment with the use of five different modalities. Combination of photodynamic therapy, H2O2 or 0.2% chlorhexidine, was recommended for disinfection of dental implant surfaces.
Giannelli et al., (2017) Not reported 4 Titanium discs S. aureus
E. coli
Irradiation of implant surfaces with diode laser and LED in the concept of phototherapy. Non-invasive phototherapy with LED appeared to an efficient method to reduce LPS and bacteria on implant surfaces.
Chellini et al., (2017) Not reported 3 Titanium discs Not reported Irradiation with diode GaAlAs laser of implant surfaces both pulsed and continuous modes. 808 ± 10 nm GaAlAs diode laser was shown to be an efficient treatment modality for peri-implantitis treatment.
Kuo et al., (2017) Not reported 3 Dental implants E. coli Irradiation with Er: YAG laser of implant surfaces on pulsed mode. Er: YAG laser treatment presented 98.9% sterilization rate on implant surfaces.
Vilarrasa et al., (2018) 5 6 Titanium discs S. oralis
P. gingivalis
A. viscosus
V. parvula
F. nucleatum
Applying triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA) silane (antibacterial surface treatment) on discs. TESPSA was reported to reduce cellular viability and biofilm adhesion.
Yang et al., (2018) 9 4 Titanium discs P. gingivalis Treatment of cold atmospheric pressure air plasma jet was applied on discs. Atmospheric pressure air plasma jet treatment appeared to be efficient in sterilization and bone formation.
Rogers et al., (2018) Not reported 2 Bacterial biofilms P. gingivalis
T. denticola
Photodynamic therapy was carried out using a diode laser at 664nm. Photodynamic therapy is an effective modality to eliminate microorganisms in peri-implantitis.
Monzavi et al., (2018) 12 5 Dental implants Not reported Surface decontamination was performed with five different laser types. Er: YAG laser with the aid of photodynamic therapy was an efficient combination on implant decontamination.
Ghasemi et al., (2019) 6 6 Titanium discs A. actinomycetemcomitans Photodynamic therapy was carried out using a diode laser, LED and toluidine blue. Photodynamic therapy using LED and toluidine blue was found more effective in the suppression of selected bacteria.
Huang et al., (2019) Not reported 9 Titanium alloy plates S. mutans
P. gingivalis
A. actinomycetemcomitans
Photodynamic therapy was carried out with different irradiation time, pH and methylene blue (MB) concentrations on Ti surfaces. Photodynamic therapy with 200μg/mL MB at pH 10 for 60s of irradiation time appeared to be an efficient modality to eliminate LPS and bacteria.

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