Table 1: Multifunctionality of HAP and correlation of the proposed modes of action with the described preventive properties of HAP. The numbers indicated in the table refer to the respective sections mentioned in the text.

Effects Modes of Action of HAP Caries Periodontitis Erosion Dentin Hypersensitivity Whitening
Remineralization
(dentin and enamel)
Physical: Attachment and fusion of HAP-particles with tooth tissue: (3), (6), (7), (8), (11), (14)
Bio-chemical: Local dissolution, ion donor, crystallization nucleus: (1), (2), (4), (5), (12), (13)
X --- X X ---
Anti-adhesive effects (microorganisms, biomolecules) Physical: Loose/loosely attached HAP-particles as substrate substitute, ingestion and/or spit-out, abrasive effects during application: (6), (7), (8), (10)
Bio-chemical: Binding affinity: (6), (7), (9)
Biological: Settlement/substrate affinity of different microorganisms: (6), (7), (8)
X X --- --- (X)
Protective layer Physical: Attachment of HAP-particles, layer formation: (3), (11), (21), (22), (23), (24)
Bio-chemical: Formation of interphase at interface between HAP crystallites from tooth and synthetic (fusion): (11)
X X X X X
Occlusion of dentin tubules Physical: Introduction of HAP-particles into tubules, layer formation: (15), (16), (17), (18), (19)
Bio-chemical: Local dissolution, ion donor, crystallization nucleus, fusion: (19)
--- --- --- X ---
Calcium and phosphate-reservoir Physical: Attachment of HAP-particles, layer formation: (3), (11), (14)
Bio-chemical: Local dissolution through extrinsic causes, ion donor: (2)
X --- X --- ---
Cleaning Physical: HAP-particles as cleaning agent X X --- --- X
Binding of proteins and carbohydrates Physical: Loose/loosely attached HAP-particles as substrate, ingestion and/or spit-out: (7)
Bio-chemical: Binding affinity: (7)
Biological: Settlement/substrate stimulus/repellent for different microorganisms: (7), (8), (9), (10)
X X --- --- X
Compensatory substrate Bio-chemical: Shift of the ion-balance to a supersaturated state of calcium and phosphate ions: (1), (2) X --- X X ---

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