Table 2: Low evidence studies which partially met the inclusion criteria.

Mesh Reference Study Design Study Aim Sample Size Conclusions
Powered toothbrush Tawse-Simth et al. 02 RCT Single Blind Cross Over (18 weeks f.u.) Comparison of clinical effectiveness of powered toothbrush and manual toothbrush in reducing inflammation around implants 40 patients,
80 implants
No statistically significant PI and BI reduction, nor differences between brushing methods
Powered toothbrush Rasperini et al. 08 Cohort study (12 months f.u.) Analysis of safety and acceptability of electronic toothbrush in esthetic areas of peri-implant tissues 100 patients Statistically significant PPD, REC and bleeding score reduction with no signs of ulceration nor desquamation
Interproximal Brush Chongcharoen
et al. 12
RCT cross over single blind (2 weeks f.u.) Analysis of the efficacy of Circum brush vs a straight soft interdental brush on implants and teeth 8 patients Statistically significant reduction of PI for both interdental brushes (p<0.0001)
Interproximal Brush Magnuson et al. 13 RCT single center (1 month f.u.) Efficacy of water flosser and waxed floss reducing BoP around implants 30 patients Statistically significant greater bleeding reduction in the water flosser group
Superfloss Van Venzel et al. 15 Observational study (2 years f.u.) Analysis of the correlation between use of dental floss/superfloss and peri-implantitis development 10 patients In case of implant exposure, there could be floss remnants that could initiate peri-implantitis development process
Mouthrinse Ciancio et al. 95 RCT blind double parallel arms (3 months f.u.) Analysis of the efficacy of mouthrinses in peri-implant tissue maintenance 20 patients Antiseptic mouthrinses showed a statistically significant reduction in PI, BI, GI; no differences in REC and PPD
Mouthrinse Pedrazzi et al. 14 Review Analysis of the efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses in peri-implant tissue plaque control Absent 0.12& CHX and Essential oils show to be effective in inhibiting biofilm formation.
Chlorhexidine Keltjens et al. 91 24 months f.u. Analysis of the efficacy of CHX gel in overdenture rehabilitated patients 19 patients BI and PPD were lower in the CHX group than in the placebo group
Chlorhexidine Felo et al. 97 RCT single blind parallel arms (3 months f.u.) Comparison of efficacy between 0.06%CHX using a powered irrigator with subgingival tip and 0.12% CHX mouthwash 24 patients Significantly greater reductions were showed in PI, MGI and SI through sub-gingival irrigation rather than mouthrinse.
Chlorhexidine Heitz-Mayfield 11 RCT Double blind (3 months f.u.) Implant homecare brushing and 0.5% CHX vs brushing and palcebo 29 patients Statistically significant BoP and PPD reduction but no statistically significant differences between test and control group.
Chlorhexidine De Siena et al. 12 RCT parallel arms (3 months f.u.) Analysis of the efficacy of 1% CHX gel and 0.2% CHX mouthwash as adjunctive therapy to mechanical treatment in peri-implantitis 30 patients Both solutions showed a PI, BI and PPD reduction but no statistically significant differences were found between the two solutions.
Chlorhexidine Hallstrom et al. 15 RCT double blind parallele arms (24 months f.u.) Analysis of CHX gel-containing brush in mucositis treatment 38 patients CHX use showed a statistically significant decrease (p<0.005) in PPD and BoP, higher than in the control group
Chlorhexidine Genovesi et al. 15 RCT double blind parallel arms (2 weeks f.u.) Analysis of anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-staining properties of 0.12% CHX and 0.12% CHX + Hyaluronic acid mouthwashes in implant rehabilitated patients after surgery 40 patients CHX+Hyaluronic Acid show a higher statistically difference in reducing edema but no differences between the two mouthwashes were found concerning the anti-flogistic activity
Homecare Maintenance Grusovin et al. 08 Systematic Review Identification of the best practice for peri-implant homecare 9 included studies Little evidence of what the best practices for peri-implant tissue care are