The Open Dentistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Effects of the Ferrule Design on Fracture Resistance to Endodontically-Treated Teeth Restored with Fiber Posts: A Systematic Review



Zurab Khabadze1, Oleg Mordanov2, *, Ferdaus Taraki1, Omargadzhi Magomedov2, Anastasiya Kuznetsova2, Shamil Solimanov2, Shamil Nazhmudinov2, Roza Bokova1, Anzhela Adzhieva1, Yunus Bakaev1
1 Medical Institute, RUDN University, Miklukho-Maklaya 10/2, Moscow, Russia
2 Private Practice, Moscow, Russia

Abstract

The ferrule is considered to be a key element in teeth preparation when restoring using a fiber post. It helps to resist occlusal forces, maintain cement tightness and minimize stress concentration on restoration using posts.

Aim:

The aim of this review is to determine the influence of the ferrule design in endodontically-treated teeth using fiber posts on their fracture resistance.

Materials and Methods:

The electronic databases examined were Medline, Scopus, and PubMed from April 2019 to October 2019. The studies were selected using well-established inclusion criteria.

Results:

In total, 79 articles were identified, 16 of which were selected after considering the titles and abstracts. After reading the full-text articles, the total number of articles included in this review was 7 with a low risk of bias.

Conclusion:

A full ferrule with a maximum height is the best design for resistance to fractures in all groups of teeth, but if it is impossible to provide this condition, the ferrule height from the palatal/lingual wall of the tooth should be increased.

The PROSPERO ID: 153543.

Keywords: Ferrule, Fiber post, Build-up, Endodontically treated teeth, Tooth fracture, Healthy teeth.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 493
Last Page: 498
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-13-493
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601913010493

Article History:

Received Date: 07/09/2019
Revision Received Date: 16/10/2019
Acceptance Date: 10/12/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/12/2019
Collection year: 2019

© 2019 Khabadze et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Private Practice, Moscow, Russia; Tel: +79123331533 E-mail: drmordanov@olisdent.ru





1. INTRODUCTION

Endodontically-treated teeth have a higher risk of biomechanical failures compared with healthy teeth [1da Silva NR, Raposo LH, Versluis A, Fernandes-Neto AJ, Soares CJ. The effect of post, core, crown type, and ferrule presence on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated bovine anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 2010; 104(5): 306-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60146-1] [PMID: 20970537]
-4Soares CJ, Soares PV, de Freitas Santos-Filho PC, Castro CG, Magalhaes D, Versluis A. The influence of cavity design and glass fiber posts on biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated premolars. J Endod 2008; 34(8): 1015-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.05.017] [PMID: 18634938]
]. The survival rates of such teeth are affected by various parameters, which may be partially dependent on the dentist experience, the post system [5Santos-Filho PC, Castro CG, Silva GR, Campos RE, Soares CJ. Effects of post system and length on the strain and fracture resistance of root filled bovine teeth. Int Endod J 2008; 41(6): 493-501.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01383.x] [PMID: 18422584]
], the presence of a ferule [6Ichim I, Kuzmanovic DV, Love RM. A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root. Int Endod J 2006; 39(6): 443-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01085.x] [PMID: 16674739]
-8Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
] and the final restoration [9Naumann M, Koelpin M, Beuer F, Meyer-Lueckel H. 10-year survival evaluation for glass-fiber-supported postendodontic restoration: A prospective observational clinical study. J Endod 2012; 38(4): 432-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.01.003] [PMID: 22414824]
, 10Tang W, Wu Y, Smales RJ. Identifying and reducing risks for potential fractures in endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 2010; 36(4): 609-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.002] [PMID: 20307732]
].

There are a number of studies focused on what material to use for the post manufacture [11Bolla M, Muller-Bolla M, Borg C, Lupi-Pegurier L, Laplanche O, Leforestier E. Root canal posts for the restoration of root filled teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (1): CD004623
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004623.pub2] [PMID: 17253516]
]. Currently, materials used for the post include gold alloys [12Balkenhol M, Wöstmann B, Rein C, Ferger P. Survival time of cast post and cores: A 10-year retrospective study. J Dent 2007; 35(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2006.04.004] [PMID: 16750593]
], stainless steel [13Fokkinga WA, Kreulen CM, Bronkhorst EM, Creugers NH. Up to 17-year controlled clinical study on post-and-cores and covering crowns. J Dent 2007; 35(10): 778-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.07.006] [PMID: 17716800]
], titanium [14Jung RE, Kalkstein O, Sailer I, Roos M, Hämmerle CH. A comparison of composite post buildups and cast gold post-and-core buildups for the restoration of nonvital teeth after 5 to 10 years. Int J Prosthodont 2007; 20(1): 63-9.
[PMID: 17319366]
], zirconium dioxide [15Bateli M, Kern M, Wolkewitz M, Strub JR, Att W. A retrospective evaluation of teeth restored with zirconia ceramic posts: 10-year results. Clin Oral Investig 2014; 18(4): 1181-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-013-1065-5] [PMID: 23900793]
] or more “flexible” fiber materials, with similar dentine physical properties [16Naumann M, Koelpin M, Beuer F, Meyer-Lueckel H. 10-year survival evaluation for glass-fiber-supported postendodontic restoration: A prospective observational clinical study. J Endod 2012; 38(4): 432-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.01.003] [PMID: 22414824]
].

It is suggested that fiber posts improve the mechanical properties of composite build-ups. However, the use of fiber posts does not improve their tensile strength [17Fokkinga WA, Le Bell AM, Kreulen CM, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK, Creugers NH. Ex vivo fracture resistance of direct resin composite complete crowns with and without posts on maxillary premolars. Int Endod J 2005; 38(4): 230-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2005.00941.x] [PMID: 15810973]
, 18Nakajima M, Kanno T, Komada W, Miura H, Foxton RM, Tagami J. Effect of bonded area and/or fiber post placement on the fracture strengths of resin-core reconstructions for pulpless teeth. Am J Dent 2010; 23(6): 300-4.
[PMID: 21344826]
].

The amount of residual coronal tissue has been reported as an important factor affecting the biomechanical behavior of teeth restored using fiber posts after endodontic treatment [19Dietschi D, Duc O, Krejci I, Sadan A. Biomechanical considerations for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: A systematic review of the literature--Part 1. Composition and micro- and macrostructure alterations. Quintessence Int 2007; 38(9): 733-43.
[PMID: 17873980]
]. At present, a technique has been described in which the “outer ring” is retained when creating parallel walls of the dentin along the crown to the preparation shoulder. This feature is called ferrule or ferrule-effect [20Skupien J, Luz M, Pereira-Cenci T. Ferrule effect: A meta-analysis. JDR Clin Trans Res 2016; 1(1): 31-9., 21Juloski J, Radovic I, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Ferrule effect: A literature review. J Endod 2012; 38(1): 11-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.09.024] [PMID: 22152612]
], which protects the root from fractures, reducing the stress concentration created by the masticatory function [21Juloski J, Radovic I, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Ferrule effect: A literature review. J Endod 2012; 38(1): 11-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.09.024] [PMID: 22152612]
, 22Santos-Filho PC, Veríssimo C, Soares PV, Saltarelo RC, Soares CJ, Marcondes Martins LR. Influence of ferrule, post system, and length on biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated anterior teeth. J Endod 2014; 40(1): 119-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2013.09.034] [PMID: 24332002]
]. For example, Magne et al. [23Magne P, Lazari PC, Carvalho MA, Johnson T, Del Bel Cury AA. Ferrule-effect dominates over use of a fiber post when restoring endodontically treated incisors: An in vitro study. Oper Dent 2017; 42(4): 396-406.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2341/16-243-L] [PMID: 28402738]
] concluded that strengthening the tooth using fiber posts does not increase the bearing capacity and durability of all-ceramic crowns, and the fiber post itself does not compensate for the absence of a ferrule.

At present, there is a controversial opinion regarding the effect of the ferrule design when restoring endodontically-treated teeth using fiber posts [24Figueiredo F, Santos R, Silva A, et al. Ferrule design does not affect the biomechanical behavior of anterior teeth under mechanical fatigue: An in vitro evaluation. Oper Dent 2019; 44(3): 273-80.
[PMID: 30517067]
-30Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
], and a recent meta-analysis showed that the role of the ferrule in these situations is still not fully understood [31Yang A, Lamichhane A, Xu C. Remaining coronal dentin and risk of fiber-reinforced composite post-core restoration failure: A meta-analysis. Int J Prosthodont 2015; 28(3): 258-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.4157] [PMID: 25965640]
].

Thus, the aim of this literature review is to determine the effect of a ferrule design on endodontically-treated teeth using fiber posts on their resistance to fractures.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Eligibility Criteria

Publications that met the following selection criteria were included:

  1. Full-text articles in English, not older than 10 years.
  2. In vitro and in vivo studies on both human and animal teeth.
  3. Studies having data on the design of the ferrule.
  4. Teeth after endodontic treatment restored using fiber posts and dental composite.

Publications that were not related to the topic of the study, case reports, literature reviews, as well as articles that did not have sufficient and specific data for the analysis were excluded.

2.2. Information Sources

The electronic databases examined were Medline, Scopus, and PubMed. There was no restriction regarding dates and search in the gray literature. A manual search of the references cited in the included publications was also performed. It was not necessary to contact the authors to access the articles. The search started in April 2019 and ended in October 2019.

2.3. Search and Selection of Studies

A search in English with no time limit was performed by three independent people. The following search query was used: [crown ferrule AND fiber post AND endodontically-treated teeth]. The studies were filtered and selected in several stages. Firstly, they were evaluated by titles. Secondly, individual documents at the first stage were additionally assessed by reading the abstracts and full-text articles. The difference in the choice was resolved through discussion among the readers.

2.4. Risk of Bias Assessment

The assessment of the risk of bias was undertaken during the data extraction process. For the included studies, it was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration’s two-part tool for assessing the risk of bias [32Higgins JPT, Altman DG. Assessing Risk of Bias in Included Studies 2008. [Google Scholar]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712184.ch8]
, 33Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 2011; 343: d5928.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5928] [PMID: 22008217]
]. Overall risk of bias was then assigned to each trial, according to Higgins et al. [33Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 2011; 343: d5928.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5928] [PMID: 22008217]
]. The levels of bias were classified as follows: low risk, if all the criteria were met; moderate risk, when only one criterion was missing; high risk, if two or more criteria were missing; and unclear risk, if there were very few details to make a judgement about a certain risk assessment.

3. RESULTS

3.1. Selection of Articles

In total, 79 articles were identified, 16 of which were selected after considering the titles and abstracts. After reading the full-text articles, the total number of articles included in this review was 7 (Fig. 1).

3.2. Description of the Studies

The characteristics of the 7 included studies are presented separately in Table 1. These studies were published between 2014 and 2018. All the studies were in vitro conducted on human teeth, with the exception of one study [24Figueiredo F, Santos R, Silva A, et al. Ferrule design does not affect the biomechanical behavior of anterior teeth under mechanical fatigue: An in vitro evaluation. Oper Dent 2019; 44(3): 273-80.
[PMID: 30517067]
], and spanned all groups of teeth. The number of teeth included in the review was 150.

3.3. Results of Individual Studies

This literature review includes various ferrule designs. The designs are described with regards to teeth and teeth sections (sides). The height of the ferrule ranged from 0 mm to 3 mm. The tests were mainly carried out using universal testing machines. More detailed information and conclusions about the impact of design on each study are presented in Table 2.

3.4. Risk of Bias within Studies and Across Studies

Summarizing the risk of bias for each study, most of the studies were classified as an unclear risk. A number of studies were considered as having a low risk of bias. There were several limitations present in the current review, including studies written in English only, which could introduce a publication bias. There were various degrees of heterogeneity in each study design, case selection, and treatment provided among the studies

4. DISCUSSION

There is a generally accepted opinion that ferrule is the most important mechanical factor for the strength of endodontically-treated teeth [1da Silva NR, Raposo LH, Versluis A, Fernandes-Neto AJ, Soares CJ. The effect of post, core, crown type, and ferrule presence on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated bovine anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 2010; 104(5): 306-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60146-1] [PMID: 20970537]
, 7Pereira JR, de Ornelas F, Conti PC, do Valle AL. Effect of a crown ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts. J Prosthet Dent 2006; 95(1): 50-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2005.10.019] [PMID: 16399275]
, 21Juloski J, Radovic I, Goracci C, Vulicevic ZR, Ferrari M. Ferrule effect: A literature review. J Endod 2012; 38(1): 11-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2011.09.024] [PMID: 22152612]
]. The presence of an adequate ferrule reduces the effect of the post system and the final restoration on the survival of endodontically-treated teeth [1da Silva NR, Raposo LH, Versluis A, Fernandes-Neto AJ, Soares CJ. The effect of post, core, crown type, and ferrule presence on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated bovine anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 2010; 104(5): 306-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60146-1] [PMID: 20970537]
].

In all the studies [25Dua N, Kumar B, Arunagiri D, Iqbal M, Pushpa S, Hussain J. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns: An ex-vivo study. J Conserv Dent 2016; 19(3): 264-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.181945] [PMID: 27217642]
-30Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
], except for the study of Figueiredo et al. [24Figueiredo F, Santos R, Silva A, et al. Ferrule design does not affect the biomechanical behavior of anterior teeth under mechanical fatigue: An in vitro evaluation. Oper Dent 2019; 44(3): 273-80.
[PMID: 30517067]
], it was shown that for all the groups of teeth, the larger the circumference of the ferrule, and the more sides involved in creating the incomplete ferule, the greater the resistance of the endodontically-treated teeth to fractures.

Fig. (1)
The article selection process.


Table 1
Brief information on the studies included in this analysis.


Table 2
Information on the ferrule design and results of the studies.


Although the study by Figueiredo et al. [24Figueiredo F, Santos R, Silva A, et al. Ferrule design does not affect the biomechanical behavior of anterior teeth under mechanical fatigue: An in vitro evaluation. Oper Dent 2019; 44(3): 273-80.
[PMID: 30517067]
] was performed on bovine teeth, the dentin of such teeth is generally considered to be similar to human dentin in composition [34Reis AF, Giannini M, Kavaguchi A, Soares CJ, Line SRP. Comparison of microtensile bond strength to enamel and dentin of human, bovine, and porcine teeth. J Adhes Dent 2004; 6(2): 117-21.
[PMID: 15293420]
, 35Fonseca RB, Haiter-Neto F, Carlo HL, et al. Radiodensity and hardness of enamel and dentin of human and bovine teeth, varying bovine teeth age. Arch Oral Biol 2008; 53(11): 1023-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.06.012] [PMID: 18675 389]
]. Due to the lack of availability and large natural anatomical variations of the extracted human teeth (age, size and shape), bovine teeth allow the use of standardized samples, which is of paramount importance and allows minimizing mixed variables and obtaining sensitivity during testing [23Magne P, Lazari PC, Carvalho MA, Johnson T, Del Bel Cury AA. Ferrule-effect dominates over use of a fiber post when restoring endodontically treated incisors: An in vitro study. Oper Dent 2017; 42(4): 396-406.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2341/16-243-L] [PMID: 28402738]
]. Thus, in vitro studies on bovine teeth cannot be neglected, and it is important to take into account the limitations of human teeth.

In clinical practice, a full 1.5 mm ferrule [36Sahafi A, Peutzfeldt A, Ravnholt G, Asmussen E, Gotfredsen K. Resistance to cyclic loading of teeth restored with posts. Clin Oral Investig 2005; 9(2): 84-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-004-0299-7] [PMID: 15747151]
] was proposed as the main requirement to achieve a good prognosis; however, this literature review showed that the best results were achieved when creating a 3 mm ferrule. Despite the fact that in most studies, the maximum ferrule was 2 mm in height because it was believed that an additional increase in the ferrule height did not have any advantage in terms of resistance to fracture, these studies evaluated the effect of different configurations of the ferrule when Kar [27Kar S. Effect of different ferrule length on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An In vitro. 2017; 11(4): zc49-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/24669.9675]
] evaluated the effects of different ferrule heights in the same configuration.

With a significant destruction of the crown and the difficulties in creating a homogeneous ferrule, teeth with an incomplete ferrule are much more effective in resisting the fractures compared to the teeth with the complete absence ferrule [25Dua N, Kumar B, Arunagiri D, Iqbal M, Pushpa S, Hussain J. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns: An ex-vivo study. J Conserv Dent 2016; 19(3): 264-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.181945] [PMID: 27217642]
-30Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
]; however, there are disagreements in the articles about which side the ferrule should be higher [25Dua N, Kumar B, Arunagiri D, Iqbal M, Pushpa S, Hussain J. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns: An ex-vivo study. J Conserv Dent 2016; 19(3): 264-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.181945] [PMID: 27217642]
, 26Haralur SB, Alalyani AF, Almutiq MA, Alfaifi AA, Al-Shehri AA. Effect of inadequate ferrule segment location on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Indian J Dent Res 2018; 29(2): 206-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_134_17] [PMID: 29652016]
, 28Meng Q, Ma Q, Wang T, Chen Y. An in vitro study evaluating the effect of ferrule design on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars after simulated crown lengthening or forced eruption methods. BMC Oral Health 2018; 18(1): 83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-018-0549-8] [PMID: 29747611]
, 30Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
]. The masticatory force vector mainly has occlusal-gingival direction and buccal-lingual directions at approximately 45°, thus increasing the height of the palatal wall in difficult situations reinforces the important role of the lingual/palatal wall when creating a ferrule for resistance to fractures.

CONCLUSION

Although most of the studies had limitations, it can be concluded that a full ferrule with a maximum height is the best design for resistance to fractures in all groups of teeth, but if it is impossible to provide this condition, the height of the ferrule from the palatal / lingual wall of the tooth should be increased.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

STANDARD FOR REPORTING

PRISMA guideline and methodology were followed.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] da Silva NR, Raposo LH, Versluis A, Fernandes-Neto AJ, Soares CJ. The effect of post, core, crown type, and ferrule presence on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated bovine anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent 2010; 104(5): 306-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60146-1] [PMID: 20970537]
[2] Tang W, Wu Y, Smales RJ. Identifying and reducing risks for potential fractures in endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 2010; 36(4): 609-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.002] [PMID: 20307732]
[3] Soares CJ, Santana FR, Silva NR, Preira JC, Pereira CA. Influence of the endodontic treatment on mechanical properties of root dentin. J Endod 2007; 33(5): 603-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2007.01.016] [PMID: 17437882]
[4] Soares CJ, Soares PV, de Freitas Santos-Filho PC, Castro CG, Magalhaes D, Versluis A. The influence of cavity design and glass fiber posts on biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated premolars. J Endod 2008; 34(8): 1015-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2008.05.017] [PMID: 18634938]
[5] Santos-Filho PC, Castro CG, Silva GR, Campos RE, Soares CJ. Effects of post system and length on the strain and fracture resistance of root filled bovine teeth. Int Endod J 2008; 41(6): 493-501.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01383.x] [PMID: 18422584]
[6] Ichim I, Kuzmanovic DV, Love RM. A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root. Int Endod J 2006; 39(6): 443-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01085.x] [PMID: 16674739]
[7] Pereira JR, de Ornelas F, Conti PC, do Valle AL. Effect of a crown ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts. J Prosthet Dent 2006; 95(1): 50-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2005.10.019] [PMID: 16399275]
[8] Zhang YY, Peng MD, Wang YN, Li Q. The effects of ferrule configuration on the anti-fracture ability of fiber post-restored teeth. J Dent 2015; 43(1): 117-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.10.003] [PMID: 25456614]
[9] Naumann M, Koelpin M, Beuer F, Meyer-Lueckel H. 10-year survival evaluation for glass-fiber-supported postendodontic restoration: A prospective observational clinical study. J Endod 2012; 38(4): 432-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2012.01.003] [PMID: 22414824]
[10] Tang W, Wu Y, Smales RJ. Identifying and reducing risks for potential fractures in endodontically treated teeth. J Endod 2010; 36(4): 609-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2009.12.002] [PMID: 20307732]
[11] Bolla M, Muller-Bolla M, Borg C, Lupi-Pegurier L, Laplanche O, Leforestier E. Root canal posts for the restoration of root filled teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (1): CD004623
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004623.pub2] [PMID: 17253516]
[12] Balkenhol M, Wöstmann B, Rein C, Ferger P. Survival time of cast post and cores: A 10-year retrospective study. J Dent 2007; 35(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2006.04.004] [PMID: 16750593]
[13] Fokkinga WA, Kreulen CM, Bronkhorst EM, Creugers NH. Up to 17-year controlled clinical study on post-and-cores and covering crowns. J Dent 2007; 35(10): 778-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.07.006] [PMID: 17716800]
[14] Jung RE, Kalkstein O, Sailer I, Roos M, Hämmerle CH. A comparison of composite post buildups and cast gold post-and-core buildups for the restoration of nonvital teeth after 5 to 10 years. Int J Prosthodont 2007; 20(1): 63-9.
[PMID: 17319366]
[15] Bateli M, Kern M, Wolkewitz M, Strub JR, Att W. A retrospective evaluation of teeth restored with zirconia ceramic posts: 10-year results. Clin Oral Investig 2014; 18(4): 1181-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-013-1065-5] [PMID: 23900793]
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