Fig. (10) Schematic representation of pain modulatory circuitry.Upward arrows represent lateral (red broken lines) and medial (red dotted lines) ascending nociceptive pathways. Lateral pathway is related to discrimination of pain perception and medial is related to emotion. Downward arrows (green solid lines) represent descending antinociceptive pathway. ACC: anterior cingulate cortex, INS: insular cortex, LA: lateral nucleus of the amygdala, BLA: basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, CeA: central nucleus of the amygdala, HT: hypothalamus, PAG: periaqueductal gray, LC: locus ceruleus, RVM: rostral ventromedial medulla, NRM: nucleus raphe magnus.

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